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JungJongsoo

15 count

JungJongsoo

15

Hemp cloth banner

A hemp cloth hung upon a long bamboo pole and used as a banner carried before a funeral bier at the time of barin (Kor. 발인, Chin. 發靷, departure of the funeral procession from the home to the burial site). Gongpo is made from a piece of loosely woven hemp, measuring 90 centimeters long, and is made by folding and stitching one of the sides to hold a bamboo pole and attaching a pair of tassels. The banner pole, made of bamboo, has a finial at the top. This banner is used to wipe dust or earth off

Korean Rites of Passage

Funeral elegy

Written passage composed in commemoration of a dead person, honoring his or her life and achievements, or a silk banner or sheet of paper on which such a mourning passage is written. The term manjang originated from the fact that it carries an elegy (jang) that leads (man), a funeral procession. It is also called mansa, because it is a poetic work (sa) written as a lament for a deceased person. Other interchangeable terms include mansi, which features heightened language and rhythm like a poem (

Korean Rites of Passage

Funeral banner

A funerary banner made of silk or paper bearing an inscription with personal information on the deceased person including name, rank, government position, and clan seat. When a person dies, the body is washed and wrapped in a shroud, the yeongjwa (Kor. 영좌, Chin. 靈座, lit. spirit seat) for the spirit of the deceased person is prepared, and the honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet) is placed in the seat. Myeongjeong is a banner hung on the folding screen set up behind the yeongjwa or

Korean Rites of Passage

Post-burial wailing

Ceremonial wailing conducted by the bereaved as they return home from a funeral, carrying with them the honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet) or the wooden spirit tablet proper placed in yoyeo (Kor. 요여, Chin. 腰輿, small palanquin used to carry the spirit tablet of the deceased home after burial). After the burial of the deceased, the mourners hold a memorial rite at the grave with food offerings arranged before the spirit tablet of the deceased. After the ceremony, they carry the s

Korean Rites of Passage

Spirit tablet enshrinement ceremony

A ceremony commemorating the enshrinement of a new spirit tablet together with those of earlier generations held on the day after jolgok. The character bu (祔) in the word buje (祔祭) refers to the placing of a new ancestral tablet in the family shrine together with other spirit tablets of earlier ancestors. The term also refers to the practice of informing the earlier generations of ancestors that they would “move the earlier ancestor to a new place and put the newly deceased in this place.” With

Korean Rites of Passage

Fan-shaped ceremonial objects

A funeral procession item in the shape of a fan with a long handle, carried in front of and behind the bier. The purpose of sap, which are also installed left and right of the coffin, is to screen the sun and prevent dust from gathering. Sap are used in the funeral to express wishes for the spirit of the deceased to soar up from the underworld to heaven. Sap are divided into various categories depending on the design embroidered on the white cloth, including unsap (Kor. 운삽, Chin. 雲翣, lit. shade

Korean Rites of Passage

Place for the spirit tablet

Place where the spirit tablet or temporary spirit tablet of the deceased is kept during the funeral and mourning period. Sangcheong is also called gweyeon (Kor. 궤연, Chin. 几筵, lit. temporary place for a spirit tablet). Yeon (筵), meaning a mat where something is placed, is where sinju (Kor. 신주, Chin. 神主, lit. spirit tablet of the deceased) or honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet), is kept. After the burial, the sinju and honbaek are brought back home and placed in the sangcheong alo

Korean Rites of Passage

Lit. small auspiciousness

Memorial rite commemorating the first anniversary of a person’s death. Sosang (Kor. 소상, Chin. 小祥, lit. small auspiciousness) is performed on the 13th month after the day of a person’s death, not counting the leap month. The rite would be held on a specific day chosen in the 13th month, but it is now generally conducted around sunrise on the first anniversary of the death. The procedures are as follows. A day before the first anniversary, those who are supposed to wear mourning clothes, including

Korean Rites of Passage

Lit. spirit-carrying litter

A small litter used to carry honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet) and sinju (Kor. 신주, Chin. 神主, spirit tablet). Yeongyeo literally means “spirit-carrying litter.” It is loaded with the temporary spirit tablet made of fabric and its container, the spirit tablet proper, incence burner, and portrait of the deceased. Two carriers cross the strap and put it around the shoulders and hold the poles. When a person dies, his or her hon (Kor, 혼, Chin. 魂, bright energy of the spirit) and ba

Korean Rites of Passage

Lit. spirit seat

A seat where honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary sprit tablet) is placed. Yeongjwa refers to a place where a temporary spirit tablet made of cloth or yeongjeong (Kor. 영정, Chin. 影幀, lit. a portrait of the deceased person) is set, in front of a folding screen set up before the body of the deceased person in the corner of a room. First, a chair is arranged to accommodate the spirit tablet, and a ritual table is prepared in front of the chair. Then in front of this table, an incense burner table

Korean Rites of Passage

Placing the dead body in the coffin

Laying the body of a dead person in the coffin after washing and shrouding. The procedures of ipgwan are as follows: first, the coffin is placed south of sisang (Kor. 시상, Chin. 屍牀, long panel on which the corpse is laid) and at the bottom of the coffin lies chilseongpan (Kor. 칠성판, Chin. 七星板, lit. seven-star wooden board). The corpse, washed and dressed, is rested on a blanket. Neatly tied, it is carefully placed in the coffin so that it is not tilted. Five pouches containing the hair, fingernail

Korean Rites of Passage

Funeral

The part of the funeral r ites for handling the corpse. Part of a funeral rite, jangnye refers to the handling of the corpse. Ways of processing the dead body include tojang (Kor. 토장, Chin. 土葬, lit. underground burial), hwajang (Kor. 화장, Chin. 火葬, lit. cremation), pungjang (Kor. 풍장, Chin. 風葬, lit. aerial burial on the ground or up in a tree), sujang (Kor. 수장, Chin. 水葬, lit. sea burial), jojang (Kor. 조장, Chin. 鳥葬, cutting a corpse into pieces for birds to eat), and hyeonjang (Kor. 현장, Chin. 懸葬, h

Korean Rites of Passage

End of ritual wailing

Official end of continued lamentation for the deceased. Three months after a ceremony held following a funeral to give comfort and peace to the spirit of the deceased (uje, 虞祭), a date is selected for jolgok. If the funeral rites are conducted at a fast pace, then uje to give comfort to the sprit is also held quickly. But for jolgok, people need to wait for three months after the funeral. After the jolgok ceremony, the descendants stop gok, or constant ritual wailing expressing grief over the de

Korean Rites of Passage

New Year's Offering Ceremony

Seolcharye (Kor. 설차례, lit. New Year’s tea offering ceremony) is the custom of paying respects to ancestral spirits on Lunar New Year’s Day by offering food to the spirits. The practice is also referred to as jeongjo darye (Kor. 정조다례, Chin. 正朝茶禮, lit. tea offering ceremony in the first morning). If the New Year’s offering is a bowl of rice flake soup, it is called tteokguk charye (Kor. 떡국차례, lit. rice flake soup offering). In traditional Korea, many families had their own family shrin

Korean Seasonal Customs

Three Dog Days

Sambok (Kor. 삼복, Chin. 三伏) refers to the three days in the sixth and seventh lunar months, which are considered to be the hottest days of the year. The exact dates differ each year and are calculated based on the relation to the solar terms and celestial stems. The three Dog Days are Chobok (Kor. 초복, Chin. 初伏, lit. First Dog Day), Jungbok (Kor. 중복, Chin. 中伏, lit. Middle Dog Day), and Malbok (Kor. 말복, Chin. 末伏, lit. Last Dog Day) and occur at ten-day intervals. The concept of the Three Dog Days w

Korean Seasonal Customs
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