Jumeoni

Jumeoni

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Clothing

Writer BaekYoungja(白英子)

Small pouch worn on the body to carry money and various personal items.

Jumeoni used during the Joseon Dynasty were varied in kind according to needs and function and were carried by men and women, young and old, regardless of social status. They went by different names depending on shape, usage, designs, and the rank of the user. Jumeoni were made in two basic forms: rounded pouches called durujumeoni, yeomnang, or hwanhyeongnang (Kor. 환형낭, Chin. 丸形囊, lit. pill-shaped sack); and angular jumeoni called gwijumeoni, jumchi or gakhyeongnang (Kor. 각형낭, Chin. 角形囊, lit. angle-shaped sack).

The durujumeoni was the most widely used kind of pouch and had a shape close to a semi-circle. Those with a drawstring at the top were called gonyu (lit. high string), those with the string in the middle were called jungnyu (lit. middle string), and those with a string at the bottom were called jeonyu (lit. low string). Gwijumeoni were rectangular in shape with the top folded inwards twice to make the bottom part stick out at either side in triangular shape.

Other types of jumeoni are straight-line jikseonjumeoni or slanted-line saseonjumeoni. The former is a rectangular shape to fit items that are commonly used in daily life, such as cases for spoon and chopsticks, fans, and ink and brush. The latter are made by folding a rectangular piece of cloth along diagonal lines, sewing the seams where they meet, gathering pleats in the middle and inserting the string, allowing the remainder to fold over the top to form a sort of lid. This type of pouch was used to hold medicine.

The pouches are given different names according to function. Incense pouches are called hyangjumeoni, those for medicine yakjumeoni, those holding flints busijumeoni and tobacco ssamji, those used to hold troop dispatch tokens balbyeongbu jumeoni, and those holding seals dojang jumeoni. Watch cases were called sigyejumeoni, cases for glasses angyeongjumeoni, brush cases were called pilnang, and emergency acupuncture needles cases were called chimnang. Besides there were sujeojumeoni that young women made to hold spoons and chopsticks as marriage articles, beoseonjumeoni to hold patterns for socks, buchaejumeoni for the scholar’s fan as well as other varied jumeoni for personal ornamental daggers, pendants and money.

Jumeoni were decorated with gold leaf or embroidery designs, mostly of animals or plants. Other popular designs were natural features, motifs or characters symbolizing good fortune, the ten symbols of longevity, peonies representing wealth and rank, and geometric designs. Nature designs used include landscapes featuring the three peaks, waves and the mushroom of immorality, which is used at the bottom of officials’ rank badges called hyungbae. Common Chinese-character designs are danam (多男), meaning many sons, and danam dabok (多男多福), meaning many sons and great fortune. A pair of ducks was often embroidered with characters meaning longevity. Jumeoni used by the elderly were often decorated with the characters subok (壽福), meaning long life and good fortune. The oboksunang was a pouch embroidered with characters representing five kinds of fortune, while cutlery cases were often decorated with a swastika character (卍) at the bottom center with embroidered waves, rocks, three mountain peaks and mushrooms of immortality on either side. The characters su-bok-gang-nyeong (壽福康寧) represent wishes for longevity, good fortune, peace and comfort. According to social status the colors and designs used differed and gold leaf designs were either present or not. Jumeoni that reflect the authority of the ruling class include hwangnyongjanang decorated with dragons, which was used by the king, as well as jumeoni decorated with phoenixes or gold leaf designs.

Traditional Korean attire, unlike Western attire, had no pockets so a separate pocket or pouch had to be carried around. Therefore, jumeoni were used by everyone, male and female, young and old and were used in diverse ways. They were often decorated with embroidery or gold leaf designs and used as ornaments. The designs on the pouches expressed wishes for longevity, good fortune, wealth, honor, and many descendants. So apart from their practical and decorative function, jumeoni also had a magical aspect. Also, there was a New Year’s custom where beans were roasted and one bean placed inside a pouch to give to relatives. If the pouch was worn on the “swine day” it was believed to bring good fortune.

Jumeoni

Jumeoni
Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Clothing

Writer BaekYoungja(白英子)

Small pouch worn on the body to carry money and various personal items.

Jumeoni used during the Joseon Dynasty were varied in kind according to needs and function and were carried by men and women, young and old, regardless of social status. They went by different names depending on shape, usage, designs, and the rank of the user. Jumeoni were made in two basic forms: rounded pouches called durujumeoni, yeomnang, or hwanhyeongnang (Kor. 환형낭, Chin. 丸形囊, lit. pill-shaped sack); and angular jumeoni called gwijumeoni, jumchi or gakhyeongnang (Kor. 각형낭, Chin. 角形囊, lit. angle-shaped sack).

The durujumeoni was the most widely used kind of pouch and had a shape close to a semi-circle. Those with a drawstring at the top were called gonyu (lit. high string), those with the string in the middle were called jungnyu (lit. middle string), and those with a string at the bottom were called jeonyu (lit. low string). Gwijumeoni were rectangular in shape with the top folded inwards twice to make the bottom part stick out at either side in triangular shape.

Other types of jumeoni are straight-line jikseonjumeoni or slanted-line saseonjumeoni. The former is a rectangular shape to fit items that are commonly used in daily life, such as cases for spoon and chopsticks, fans, and ink and brush. The latter are made by folding a rectangular piece of cloth along diagonal lines, sewing the seams where they meet, gathering pleats in the middle and inserting the string, allowing the remainder to fold over the top to form a sort of lid. This type of pouch was used to hold medicine.

The pouches are given different names according to function. Incense pouches are called hyangjumeoni, those for medicine yakjumeoni, those holding flints busijumeoni and tobacco ssamji, those used to hold troop dispatch tokens balbyeongbu jumeoni, and those holding seals dojang jumeoni. Watch cases were called sigyejumeoni, cases for glasses angyeongjumeoni, brush cases were called pilnang, and emergency acupuncture needles cases were called chimnang. Besides there were sujeojumeoni that young women made to hold spoons and chopsticks as marriage articles, beoseonjumeoni to hold patterns for socks, buchaejumeoni for the scholar’s fan as well as other varied jumeoni for personal ornamental daggers, pendants and money.

Jumeoni were decorated with gold leaf or embroidery designs, mostly of animals or plants. Other popular designs were natural features, motifs or characters symbolizing good fortune, the ten symbols of longevity, peonies representing wealth and rank, and geometric designs. Nature designs used include landscapes featuring the three peaks, waves and the mushroom of immorality, which is used at the bottom of officials’ rank badges called hyungbae. Common Chinese-character designs are danam (多男), meaning many sons, and danam dabok (多男多福), meaning many sons and great fortune. A pair of ducks was often embroidered with characters meaning longevity. Jumeoni used by the elderly were often decorated with the characters subok (壽福), meaning long life and good fortune. The oboksunang was a pouch embroidered with characters representing five kinds of fortune, while cutlery cases were often decorated with a swastika character (卍) at the bottom center with embroidered waves, rocks, three mountain peaks and mushrooms of immortality on either side. The characters su-bok-gang-nyeong (壽福康寧) represent wishes for longevity, good fortune, peace and comfort. According to social status the colors and designs used differed and gold leaf designs were either present or not. Jumeoni that reflect the authority of the ruling class include hwangnyongjanang decorated with dragons, which was used by the king, as well as jumeoni decorated with phoenixes or gold leaf designs.

Traditional Korean attire, unlike Western attire, had no pockets so a separate pocket or pouch had to be carried around. Therefore, jumeoni were used by everyone, male and female, young and old and were used in diverse ways. They were often decorated with embroidery or gold leaf designs and used as ornaments. The designs on the pouches expressed wishes for longevity, good fortune, wealth, honor, and many descendants. So apart from their practical and decorative function, jumeoni also had a magical aspect. Also, there was a New Year’s custom where beans were roasted and one bean placed inside a pouch to give to relatives. If the pouch was worn on the “swine day” it was believed to bring good fortune.