Chibae(击辈)

Headword

치배 ( 击辈 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimIkdoo(金益斗)

The term chibae literally means “a person who strikes something” and is used in reference to a person who performs in a nongak (farmers’ music) troupe.

In the historical and traditional sense, chibae is similar to the term jaebi (Kor. 잽이, Chin. 尺). Etymologically, the origin of the word chibae can be found in the term jaebi, a person who holds a musical instrument. During the Three Kingdoms period, jaebi was used in the context of performing arts to refer to Silla specialists in music, song, dance, and theater who performed at state events. In a narrow sense, jaebi means a person who plays a musical instrument, that is, synonymous with the term akgong (Kor. 악공, Chin 樂工, lit. musical worker) for court musician.

In the broadest sense, the word chibae refers to all the performers in a nongak troupe: flag bearers called gisu (those carrying dragon flags, farming community flags, command flags, etc.), musicians called apchibae (those playing the nabal, saenap, kkwaenggwari, jing, buk, janggu, and the yeoldubalsangmo performer etc.), and actors and performers called dwitchibae or japsaek (daeposu, jorijung, yangban, gaksi, mudong). Chibae sometimes refers to apchibae and dwitchibae only among the entire party of nongak performers. In this case, it indicates all the performers with the exception of the flag bearers.

In the narrower sense, the term is also used to represent the apchibae only, that is, only those who play musical instruments in nongak. In this case, the term chibae does not include the flag bearers or actors (dwitchibae, or japsaek). In the narrowest sense, it refers only to the percussionists, that is, the musicians who play the gongs and the drums.

The composition of the chibae, when used in the broad sense to include the entire troupe of nongak performers, differs from region to region. In terms of the geographical distribution, nongak is concentrated in the southern part of the Korean peninsula as this is where it mainly developed. Geographically, the major categories of nongak are Yeongdong nongak (nongak of Gangwon-do Province), Yeongnam nongak (nongak of Gyeongsang-do Province), Utdari nongak (nongak of Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do provinces), Honam Jwado nongak, and Honam Udo nongak (nongak of the eastern and western parts of Jeolla-do Province, respectively).

The composition of the chibae changes according to period and social changes. Periodical change found in recent years includes the inclusion of flag bearers carrying flags representing a particular organization or group, and the appearance of singing beggars called gakseori or the daeposu dressed in military uniform among the actors (dwitchibae, or japsaek). The most salient feature of changes in composition is the sharply diminished role of these actors in pangut (entertainment-oriented nongak performance).

The term akgong (Kor. 악공, Chin. 樂工) or jaebi is generally used in gugak (classical Korean music) or traditional performing arts, whereas chibae is reserved for use in folk entertainment and performances, particularly nongak. In the nongak context, chibae has both static and changeable aspects in terms of its type and number. In the static aspect, chibae is always composed of flag bearers, actors, and percussionists. On the other hand, differences or changes may appear in each of the three components constituting chibae, depending on time and region.

Chibae

Chibae
Headword

치배 ( 击辈 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimIkdoo(金益斗)

The term chibae literally means “a person who strikes something” and is used in reference to a person who performs in a nongak (farmers’ music) troupe.

In the historical and traditional sense, chibae is similar to the term jaebi (Kor. 잽이, Chin. 尺). Etymologically, the origin of the word chibae can be found in the term jaebi, a person who holds a musical instrument. During the Three Kingdoms period, jaebi was used in the context of performing arts to refer to Silla specialists in music, song, dance, and theater who performed at state events. In a narrow sense, jaebi means a person who plays a musical instrument, that is, synonymous with the term akgong (Kor. 악공, Chin 樂工, lit. musical worker) for court musician.

In the broadest sense, the word chibae refers to all the performers in a nongak troupe: flag bearers called gisu (those carrying dragon flags, farming community flags, command flags, etc.), musicians called apchibae (those playing the nabal, saenap, kkwaenggwari, jing, buk, janggu, and the yeoldubalsangmo performer etc.), and actors and performers called dwitchibae or japsaek (daeposu, jorijung, yangban, gaksi, mudong). Chibae sometimes refers to apchibae and dwitchibae only among the entire party of nongak performers. In this case, it indicates all the performers with the exception of the flag bearers.

In the narrower sense, the term is also used to represent the apchibae only, that is, only those who play musical instruments in nongak. In this case, the term chibae does not include the flag bearers or actors (dwitchibae, or japsaek). In the narrowest sense, it refers only to the percussionists, that is, the musicians who play the gongs and the drums.

The composition of the chibae, when used in the broad sense to include the entire troupe of nongak performers, differs from region to region. In terms of the geographical distribution, nongak is concentrated in the southern part of the Korean peninsula as this is where it mainly developed. Geographically, the major categories of nongak are Yeongdong nongak (nongak of Gangwon-do Province), Yeongnam nongak (nongak of Gyeongsang-do Province), Utdari nongak (nongak of Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do provinces), Honam Jwado nongak, and Honam Udo nongak (nongak of the eastern and western parts of Jeolla-do Province, respectively).

The composition of the chibae changes according to period and social changes. Periodical change found in recent years includes the inclusion of flag bearers carrying flags representing a particular organization or group, and the appearance of singing beggars called gakseori or the daeposu dressed in military uniform among the actors (dwitchibae, or japsaek). The most salient feature of changes in composition is the sharply diminished role of these actors in pangut (entertainment-oriented nongak performance).

The term akgong (Kor. 악공, Chin. 樂工) or jaebi is generally used in gugak (classical Korean music) or traditional performing arts, whereas chibae is reserved for use in folk entertainment and performances, particularly nongak. In the nongak context, chibae has both static and changeable aspects in terms of its type and number. In the static aspect, chibae is always composed of flag bearers, actors, and percussionists. On the other hand, differences or changes may appear in each of the three components constituting chibae, depending on time and region.