Cheongju Nongak(清州农乐)

Headword

청주농악 ( 清州农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer SiJieun(施知恩)

Nongak performed in Sinchon-dong and Ji-dong in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk- do Province that has been developed into an entertainment-focused form of nongak.

Cheongju Nongak is a version of nongak performed in the central part of Chungcheongbuk-do. As nongak developed in areas where rice farming was active, Cheongju Nongak developed around the Miho plains, the granary of the Chungcheongbuk-do region. It declined somewhat during the Japanese colonial period, but after liberation, the nongak of Sinchon-dong and Ji-dong were combined under the name of Cheongwongun Nongak and in 1987, when Cheongwon-gun was absorbed into the city of Cheongju, it came to be known as Cheongju Nongak.

Cheongju Nongak encompasses various forms of nongak that have been performed from long in the past including geollipgut (to collect rice or money) at the lunar New Year, duregut in the summer farming season, and meoseumgut (lit. servant rite) at Baekjung (seventh month). However, only the entertainment-based performance form of Cheongju Nongak is carried on today. Cheongju Nongak used to be very simple but through participation in competitions and the invitation of virtuoso performers such as Im Gwang-sik and Song Sun-gap to take part in the nongak troupe has enabled great artistic development and its transformation into an entertaining performance. Compared to the nongak of other regions, Cheongju Nongak features rapid, lively rhythm changes, and diverse choreographed line formations, and is characterized by the unique way of wearing the sangmo hat upright at the back of the head. After liberation, competition experience and the teaching of experts from namsadangpae (itinerant groups of male entertainers) and Utdari Nongak have brought changes to the nongak traditions of Cheongju.

The Cheongju Nongak troupe consists of flag bearers (gisu), musicians (chibae), and actors (japsaek). The flag bearers carry a pair of farming flags (nonggi) and a pair of command flags (yeonggi). The musicians include the hojeok (double-reed oboe) player, soe (small gong, also called kkwaenggwari) players, jing (large gong) players, buk (barrel drum) players, janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) players, and beopgo (dharma drum) players. The actors include the nobleman (yangban), woman in disguise (man disguised as a woman who dances and follows the steward around), monk (jung), and hunter (posu). The costume consists of white pants and jacket (jeogori) with a tri-colored sash over the shoulders and around the waist. The sangsoe, or lead small gong player, wears a black vest as well. The soe players wear the budeulsangmo, a hat with a soft feathery tuft attached, the beopgo players wear chaesangmo, a hat with a paper streamer attached, and everyone else wears a peaked hat (gokkal). The Cheongju Nongak pangut is performed today in the following order and composition.

  1. Ullimchae
    A kind of warm-up where the start of the performance is signaled and the musicians test their instruments and their harmony with others then play the two-strike (dumachi) rhythm.
  2. Ipjang-/Insagut (entrance and greeting)
    The troupe enters the madang, or outdoor performance space, and bow as they greet the audience. With the command flag at the front they play the gonnabi (three-strike) rhythm as the flag bearers, musicians and actors enter in that order, then play the jajin rhythm.
  3. Taegeuknori
    The sangsoe plays the gonnabi rhythm and enters the circle, and leading the beopgo players he makes the taegeuk line formation. The second soe player calls in other musicians to fill the gaps left by the beopgo players. When the sangsoe gives the signal those in the taegeuk formation sit down and stand up again and then return to the original circle.
  4. Meongseongmari (rolling the mat)
    Playing the chilchae (seven strike) rhythm, the musicians form a spiral formation, like a mat being rolled up. These days three such formations are made, one on the left, one on the right and one in the center. The formation is made to the seven-strike jilgonaebi rhythm and unrolled to the dumachi (two-hit) rhythm and everyone forms one circle again.
  5. Kkotbonguri (flower bud)
    The musicians stand in a circle playing the gonnabi rhythm, and when the sangsoe gives the signal the beopgo players make another circle on the inside so that there are two concentric circles. These two circles are said to look like a flower bud, hence the name.
  6. Ssangjulbaegi
    As the musicians turn in a circle, the sangsoe plays the gonnabi rhythm and stands the beopgo players on the right hand side and the other musicians on the left hand side so that they are facing each other. Then he stands in the middle and plays the gong alone. This formation is said to look like two embedded lines (ssangjul).
  7. Beopgonori (beopgo performance)
    Playing the gonnabi rhythm the sangsoe teases the beopgo players and at the signal given by the sangsoe they move forwards and backwards in a line. Returning to their original positions they play the jajin rhythm. The beopgo players and other musicians form one circle.
  8. Samseongnori
    When the sangsoe moves from the gonnabi rhythm to the jajin rhythm, the soe and jing players move into the center and make a circle. The janggu and buk players make a circle on the right and the beopgo players a circle on the left so that there are three circles. The sangsoe stands in the middle and performs alone, playing the jajin rhythm. Then he plays the gonnabi rhythm and the three circles join to make one circle again.
  9. Sipjanori
    While the musicians turn in a circle to the gonnabi rhythm, the sangsoe leads the musicians to the center where they stand in single file, then leads the beopgo players to cross their line at right angles so that they form a cross shape. Then they all play the jajin rhythm.
  10. Satongbaegi
    Each of the four lines of the cross formation makes a circle. In the center of the four circles the sangsoe performs alone and the four circles dissolve to make one big circle.
  11. Saejosi
    This is rooted in the farming procedure of fertilizing the fields or rice paddies. The name is also said to come from the way the performers move lightly like birds (sae). Playing the gonnabi rhythm the musicians make a circle then divide into two lines, one headed by the sangsoe and the other by the second soe player and come together in the center. Now standing near the front, the two lines turn around and split into four lines and come together in the middle again.
  12. Jwauchigi
    Having come toward the front through saejosi, the four lines of musicians take two steps to the left and right and then the front and back to the jwauchigi rhythm. Then the sangsoe leads everyone, starting with the second soe player, to form one circle.
  13. Chaesangnori
    This is the only true solo performance of Cheongju Nongak. The beopgo player wearing the yeoldubalsangmo (hat with 12-foot streamer) stands in the center of the circle and spins the long streamer around. Playing the chilchae (seven strike) rhythm he leads the performers in zigzag formation (Kor. 갈지자, Chin. 之) and then the spiral formation (meongseongmari).
  14. Toejang (exit)
    The performers move out of the spiral and make a circle, bow to the audience and make their exit.

Nongak performed in the Cheongju region has for geographic reasons the features of both Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do nongak. Thanks to its wide plains, the Cheongju region saw the development of durenongak, the music that was played in the fields as the dure (farm labor collective) worked as a way to relieve the farmers of their fatigue and put them in high spirits. After liberation, the experience of participating and winning awards in various competitions prompted the desire to develop the artistry and entertainment aspect of the performance, and master kkwaenggwari players Lim Gwang-sik and Son Sun-gap were invited to join the village nongak troupe. This had a great influence on sangsoe Lee Jong-hwan, and Cheongju Nongak, based on the dure nongak tradition, changed to focus more on the entertainment and performance aspect. Hence, it features showy line formations and fast, pleasant rhythms.

Cheongju Nongak

Cheongju Nongak
Headword

청주농악 ( 清州农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer SiJieun(施知恩)

Nongak performed in Sinchon-dong and Ji-dong in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk- do Province that has been developed into an entertainment-focused form of nongak.

Cheongju Nongak is a version of nongak performed in the central part of Chungcheongbuk-do. As nongak developed in areas where rice farming was active, Cheongju Nongak developed around the Miho plains, the granary of the Chungcheongbuk-do region. It declined somewhat during the Japanese colonial period, but after liberation, the nongak of Sinchon-dong and Ji-dong were combined under the name of Cheongwongun Nongak and in 1987, when Cheongwon-gun was absorbed into the city of Cheongju, it came to be known as Cheongju Nongak.

Cheongju Nongak encompasses various forms of nongak that have been performed from long in the past including geollipgut (to collect rice or money) at the lunar New Year, duregut in the summer farming season, and meoseumgut (lit. servant rite) at Baekjung (seventh month). However, only the entertainment-based performance form of Cheongju Nongak is carried on today. Cheongju Nongak used to be very simple but through participation in competitions and the invitation of virtuoso performers such as Im Gwang-sik and Song Sun-gap to take part in the nongak troupe has enabled great artistic development and its transformation into an entertaining performance. Compared to the nongak of other regions, Cheongju Nongak features rapid, lively rhythm changes, and diverse choreographed line formations, and is characterized by the unique way of wearing the sangmo hat upright at the back of the head. After liberation, competition experience and the teaching of experts from namsadangpae (itinerant groups of male entertainers) and Utdari Nongak have brought changes to the nongak traditions of Cheongju.

The Cheongju Nongak troupe consists of flag bearers (gisu), musicians (chibae), and actors (japsaek). The flag bearers carry a pair of farming flags (nonggi) and a pair of command flags (yeonggi). The musicians include the hojeok (double-reed oboe) player, soe (small gong, also called kkwaenggwari) players, jing (large gong) players, buk (barrel drum) players, janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) players, and beopgo (dharma drum) players. The actors include the nobleman (yangban), woman in disguise (man disguised as a woman who dances and follows the steward around), monk (jung), and hunter (posu). The costume consists of white pants and jacket (jeogori) with a tri-colored sash over the shoulders and around the waist. The sangsoe, or lead small gong player, wears a black vest as well. The soe players wear the budeulsangmo, a hat with a soft feathery tuft attached, the beopgo players wear chaesangmo, a hat with a paper streamer attached, and everyone else wears a peaked hat (gokkal). The Cheongju Nongak pangut is performed today in the following order and composition.

Ullimchae
A kind of warm-up where the start of the performance is signaled and the musicians test their instruments and their harmony with others then play the two-strike (dumachi) rhythm. Ipjang-/Insagut (entrance and greeting)
The troupe enters the madang, or outdoor performance space, and bow as they greet the audience. With the command flag at the front they play the gonnabi (three-strike) rhythm as the flag bearers, musicians and actors enter in that order, then play the jajin rhythm. Taegeuknori
The sangsoe plays the gonnabi rhythm and enters the circle, and leading the beopgo players he makes the taegeuk line formation. The second soe player calls in other musicians to fill the gaps left by the beopgo players. When the sangsoe gives the signal those in the taegeuk formation sit down and stand up again and then return to the original circle. Meongseongmari (rolling the mat)
Playing the chilchae (seven strike) rhythm, the musicians form a spiral formation, like a mat being rolled up. These days three such formations are made, one on the left, one on the right and one in the center. The formation is made to the seven-strike jilgonaebi rhythm and unrolled to the dumachi (two-hit) rhythm and everyone forms one circle again. Kkotbonguri (flower bud)
The musicians stand in a circle playing the gonnabi rhythm, and when the sangsoe gives the signal the beopgo players make another circle on the inside so that there are two concentric circles. These two circles are said to look like a flower bud, hence the name. Ssangjulbaegi
As the musicians turn in a circle, the sangsoe plays the gonnabi rhythm and stands the beopgo players on the right hand side and the other musicians on the left hand side so that they are facing each other. Then he stands in the middle and plays the gong alone. This formation is said to look like two embedded lines (ssangjul). Beopgonori (beopgo performance)
Playing the gonnabi rhythm the sangsoe teases the beopgo players and at the signal given by the sangsoe they move forwards and backwards in a line. Returning to their original positions they play the jajin rhythm. The beopgo players and other musicians form one circle. Samseongnori
When the sangsoe moves from the gonnabi rhythm to the jajin rhythm, the soe and jing players move into the center and make a circle. The janggu and buk players make a circle on the right and the beopgo players a circle on the left so that there are three circles. The sangsoe stands in the middle and performs alone, playing the jajin rhythm. Then he plays the gonnabi rhythm and the three circles join to make one circle again. Sipjanori
While the musicians turn in a circle to the gonnabi rhythm, the sangsoe leads the musicians to the center where they stand in single file, then leads the beopgo players to cross their line at right angles so that they form a cross shape. Then they all play the jajin rhythm. Satongbaegi
Each of the four lines of the cross formation makes a circle. In the center of the four circles the sangsoe performs alone and the four circles dissolve to make one big circle. Saejosi
This is rooted in the farming procedure of fertilizing the fields or rice paddies. The name is also said to come from the way the performers move lightly like birds (sae). Playing the gonnabi rhythm the musicians make a circle then divide into two lines, one headed by the sangsoe and the other by the second soe player and come together in the center. Now standing near the front, the two lines turn around and split into four lines and come together in the middle again. Jwauchigi
Having come toward the front through saejosi, the four lines of musicians take two steps to the left and right and then the front and back to the jwauchigi rhythm. Then the sangsoe leads everyone, starting with the second soe player, to form one circle. Chaesangnori
This is the only true solo performance of Cheongju Nongak. The beopgo player wearing the yeoldubalsangmo (hat with 12-foot streamer) stands in the center of the circle and spins the long streamer around. Playing the chilchae (seven strike) rhythm he leads the performers in zigzag formation (Kor. 갈지자, Chin. 之) and then the spiral formation (meongseongmari). Toejang (exit)
The performers move out of the spiral and make a circle, bow to the audience and make their exit.

Nongak performed in the Cheongju region has for geographic reasons the features of both Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do nongak. Thanks to its wide plains, the Cheongju region saw the development of durenongak, the music that was played in the fields as the dure (farm labor collective) worked as a way to relieve the farmers of their fatigue and put them in high spirits. After liberation, the experience of participating and winning awards in various competitions prompted the desire to develop the artistry and entertainment aspect of the performance, and master kkwaenggwari players Lim Gwang-sik and Son Sun-gap were invited to join the village nongak troupe. This had a great influence on sangsoe Lee Jong-hwan, and Cheongju Nongak, based on the dure nongak tradition, changed to focus more on the entertainment and performance aspect. Hence, it features showy line formations and fast, pleasant rhythms.