Cheongdo Chasan Nongak(清道车山农乐)

Headword

청도차산농악 ( 清道车山农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer NamSungjin(南聖辰)

Nongak handed down in Chasan-ri, Punggak-myeon, Cheongdo in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province.

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak is a form of nongak that developed from the cheongwanggi (Kor. 천왕기, Chin. 天王旗, lit. flag of the heavenly king) battle that was waged among various villages in Punggak-myeon, Cheongdo. Chasan-ri (Kor. 차산리, Chin. 車山里) is a village with a long history, known to be an ancient village of Silla. It is a typical farming village where its 130 households have relied solely on agriculture for living. Cheongdo Chasan Nongak was performed on the first full moon day of the lunar year (Daeboreum) when a rite was held to the village tutelary deity (dongje) to pray for the welfare of the village and a good harvest. It is based on one part of the dongje rite where the sundry spirits are expelled and the tutelary deity (in this case cheonwang) descends, particularly the battle to secure the flag of the heavenly king. It is not known exactly when it started, but it was the major rite performed at Daeboreum by all the villages in the Punggak-myeon area, including Chasan-ri.

The Chasan nongak troupe is composed of one person carrying the cheongwanggi, one napal (long, straight trumpet) player, one godong (double-reed oboe) player, lead soe (small gong) player called sangsoe, and second soe player, lead jing (large gong) player and two other jing players, lead buk (barrel drum) player and one to four second buk players, final buk player, lead janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) player, one to four second janggu players, final janggu player, leading beopgo (dharma drum) player, one to four second beopgo players, and final beopgo player. The actors (japsaek) include the new bride (saeksi), nobleman (yangban), and hunter (posu). As for costume, the cheonwang flag bearer, napal player, and godong player are dressed in white pants and jacket and head scarf. The soe players wear white pants and jacket, a vest, a sash over the shoulders and around the waist, and a jeollip on the head. The jing, janggu and buk players all wear the same costume, except for the hat, as they wear a peaked hat (gokkal) instead. The nobleman wears a white coat and black scholar’s cap, a belt around the waist and straw shoes. He holds a tobacco pipe and fan. The hunter wears black pants, a long jacket with a belt around the waist and a head scarf. He holds a gun and carries a mesh bag which holds his lunchbox and spoon and chopsticks. Hanging on the outside are raccoon, rabbit and pheasant skins. Chasan Nongak is performed in two forms, jisinbapgi and pangut. The contents are explained below.

The Cheongdo Chasan Nongak jisinbapgi (treading on the earth gods) is generally performed on the first full moon day of the year. The sangsoe and village elders gather to decide the date and venue. In most cases it is held at the homes that request it, that is, homes that are financially comfortable or have great belief in the power of the gods and wish to pray for good fortune and ward off disaster. Before the troupe arrives at the house, the host prepares a table with food and liquor and a ritual table laid with dried fish, fruit, water, rice, liquor, money, two candlesticks, cups, incense, and a ewer. The nongak troupe consists of musicians including the soe player, janggu player, buk player, nabal player, sangmo performer, and actors playing the nobleman, hunter, and bride, and others. The procedures of jisinbapgi are as follows.

  1. Danggut
    The troupe arrives at the village shrine and plays the dangsangut rhythm, informing the village tutelary deity of their intention to perform nongak.
  2. Mungut
    The troupe arrives at the front gate of the house and calls out, “Master of the house, open the gate. The wanderers are about to enter.”
  3. Madanggut
    When the master of the house gives permission the troupe pass through the gate and circle the yard playing music. Some of the musicians go to the wooden-floored hall and hold a rite to the household god (seongjupuri).
  4. Seongjugut (seongjupuri)
    The sangsoe sings the lines (or text, called saseol) of seongjupuri, the rite to the household god.
  5. Jowanggut
    The troupe goes to the kitchen where the sangsoe sings the lines of the rite to the kitchen god.
  6. Jangdokgut (jangdokpuri)
    The troupe goes out to the crock terrace (jangdokdae) and the sangsoe sings the lines of the rite of the crock terrace.
  7. Yongwanggut (umulgut)
    The troupe goes to the well and the sangsoe sings the lines of the well rite, or rite to the dragon god (yongwang).
  8. Goggangut (storehouse), 9. jeongnanggut (outhouse), 10. somagut, 11. bangagut (mill), and 12. butteulgut are performed in this order. In each part, the sangsoe sings the lines. Because jisinbapgi involves treading on the household gods and appeasing them with well wishing words, the troupe visits every part of the house. After going round the house, they go to the front yard and gather in front of the liquor table to eat and drink and play a bout of music before heading to the next house.

The troupe for the entertainment-based pangut of Cheongdo Chasan Nongak consists of 50 people. First, two teams of 25 people each march forward in three rows with the taepyeongso (double-reed oboe) player, napal player, cheongwang flag and farming flag (nonggi) at front. Playing the jajinmori rhythm the troupe bows to the audience under the command of the sangsoe. For this greeting the taepyeongso player, napal player, cheongwang flag and farming flag bearers stand in one row at the front while everyone else moves under the direction of the sangsoe.

  1. Gutgeorigut
    The cheonwang flag and farming flag are set up and the troupe stands in three rows. The sangsoe plays the joreumsoe (two-strike) rhythm and at his command the troupe bows and greets the audience. Then moving in one line in the counterclockwise direction they perform a slow deotbaegi dance to the gutgeorigut. The sangsoe and other soe players go into the center of the circle and play the mujeongjakgung rhythm and make the jeong character (井) for “well” and direct the rest of the musicians.
  2. Bujeonggut
    Intended to chase away any sundry spirits who were not chased out with the gutgeorigut, this is performed to the saemachi (three-hit) rhythm. When the sangsoe stops playing the musicians move out of one big circle to make two concentric circles. As the leftover spirits can’t be chased away or caught single-handedly, this rite is performed to chase them away in pairs to prevent any accidents and pray for peace.
  3. Yeonpunggigut
    From two circles they make one big circle again to the hohottakttak rhythm and jump lightly into the air to express the sense of satisfaction felt at chasing away the remaining spirits.
  4. Jajinmorigut
    Playing the jajinmori rhythm the musicians move in a circle in the counterclockwise direction then play a deotbaegi rhythm to boost the mood. To make one circle from two circles in the previous yeonpunggigut the soe is played. This act is intended to enhance the mood even further, after chasing the spirits away in the bujeonggut and feeling happy about it in the yeonpunggigut.
  5. Mullaegut
    This symbolizes the farming of cotton and weaving of cloth using a spinning wheel and hence prayers and wishes for a good harvest. It depicts the unraveling of thread and signifies that one must weave cloth and make clothes if one is to do the farming and take part in other activities.
  6. Jingut
    This is the process of walking in one line to work in the fields after making clothes of cotton, and reveals traces of the old duregut format. The sangsoe plays the janjinmori rhythm and when he gives the signal the circle moves in the clockwise direction, and when he gives the signal again on the gong they form three concentric circles, and when he signals again with the gong they form four circles.
  7. Nongsagut
    Under the direction of the sangsoe, the beopgo players spin the streamers on their hats as they imitate farming movements. It starts with the musicians forming a line under the lead of the sangsoe, and can be called a rite to pray for a good harvest. The farming procedures acted out by the beopgo players, in order, are 1) sowing the seeds, 2) pulling the seedlings, 3) transplanting the seedlings, 4) weeding the rice paddies, 5) cutting the rice plants, 6) threshing, 7) gathering the rice stalks, 8) winnowing and 9) stacking rice sacks.
  8. Janggunori (performance of janggu players)
    The janggu players go into the middle of the circle and stand in two lines facing each other as they play their drums and dance, changing places then joining the circle and coming back out again.
  9. Bukchum (drum dance)
    While the buk players dance gaily to a fast jajinmori rhythm, they rest the drum on the right foot and turn on the spot to the left.
  10. Joreumgut
    The highlight of Chasan Nongak, this act is performed to express the joy felt when the rice has been stored in sacks after a good harvest. Moving in a circle in the counterclockwise direction, the small gongs are played joyfully and rapidly.
  11. Obanggut
    This act signifies the end result of one year’s worth of farming, when cheonwang, the heavenly king, has been well fed and worshipped. The Cheonwang flag, farming flag, taepyeongso and wooden nabal are left in the center of the circle while joreumsoe is played and the musicians roll themselves into spiral formation and then move out of formation in the five directions (obang), north, south, east, west and the center.

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak is a form of nongak that grew out of the cheongwang flag battle between villages in Punggak-myeon. Incorporating dance and folk song with percussion music and mock farming performances, it is especially noted for its deotbaegi dance and rapid, exciting gutgeori rhythms, a feature of the music and dance of Gyeongsang- do. The rhythms have 12 variations with 12 rhythms and 36-hit rhythms and at each section of the pangut, according to the rhythm played by the sangsoe, various line formations are made one after the other. In addition, the fact that the nongsagut is performed with song is another characteristic. Cheongdo Changsan Nongak maintains an oldtime feel, steady with an old hometown beauty and roughness. Many of its rhythm patterns are single rhythms that gradually grow faster and harder. They are unadorned and spirited and are handed down as a representative form of the nongak of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province.

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak
Headword

청도차산농악 ( 清道车山农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer NamSungjin(南聖辰)

Nongak handed down in Chasan-ri, Punggak-myeon, Cheongdo in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province.

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak is a form of nongak that developed from the cheongwanggi (Kor. 천왕기, Chin. 天王旗, lit. flag of the heavenly king) battle that was waged among various villages in Punggak-myeon, Cheongdo. Chasan-ri (Kor. 차산리, Chin. 車山里) is a village with a long history, known to be an ancient village of Silla. It is a typical farming village where its 130 households have relied solely on agriculture for living. Cheongdo Chasan Nongak was performed on the first full moon day of the lunar year (Daeboreum) when a rite was held to the village tutelary deity (dongje) to pray for the welfare of the village and a good harvest. It is based on one part of the dongje rite where the sundry spirits are expelled and the tutelary deity (in this case cheonwang) descends, particularly the battle to secure the flag of the heavenly king. It is not known exactly when it started, but it was the major rite performed at Daeboreum by all the villages in the Punggak-myeon area, including Chasan-ri.

The Chasan nongak troupe is composed of one person carrying the cheongwanggi, one napal (long, straight trumpet) player, one godong (double-reed oboe) player, lead soe (small gong) player called sangsoe, and second soe player, lead jing (large gong) player and two other jing players, lead buk (barrel drum) player and one to four second buk players, final buk player, lead janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) player, one to four second janggu players, final janggu player, leading beopgo (dharma drum) player, one to four second beopgo players, and final beopgo player. The actors (japsaek) include the new bride (saeksi), nobleman (yangban), and hunter (posu). As for costume, the cheonwang flag bearer, napal player, and godong player are dressed in white pants and jacket and head scarf. The soe players wear white pants and jacket, a vest, a sash over the shoulders and around the waist, and a jeollip on the head. The jing, janggu and buk players all wear the same costume, except for the hat, as they wear a peaked hat (gokkal) instead. The nobleman wears a white coat and black scholar’s cap, a belt around the waist and straw shoes. He holds a tobacco pipe and fan. The hunter wears black pants, a long jacket with a belt around the waist and a head scarf. He holds a gun and carries a mesh bag which holds his lunchbox and spoon and chopsticks. Hanging on the outside are raccoon, rabbit and pheasant skins. Chasan Nongak is performed in two forms, jisinbapgi and pangut. The contents are explained below.

The Cheongdo Chasan Nongak jisinbapgi (treading on the earth gods) is generally performed on the first full moon day of the year. The sangsoe and village elders gather to decide the date and venue. In most cases it is held at the homes that request it, that is, homes that are financially comfortable or have great belief in the power of the gods and wish to pray for good fortune and ward off disaster. Before the troupe arrives at the house, the host prepares a table with food and liquor and a ritual table laid with dried fish, fruit, water, rice, liquor, money, two candlesticks, cups, incense, and a ewer. The nongak troupe consists of musicians including the soe player, janggu player, buk player, nabal player, sangmo performer, and actors playing the nobleman, hunter, and bride, and others. The procedures of jisinbapgi are as follows.

Danggut
The troupe arrives at the village shrine and plays the dangsangut rhythm, informing the village tutelary deity of their intention to perform nongak. Mungut
The troupe arrives at the front gate of the house and calls out, “Master of the house, open the gate. The wanderers are about to enter.” Madanggut
When the master of the house gives permission the troupe pass through the gate and circle the yard playing music. Some of the musicians go to the wooden-floored hall and hold a rite to the household god (seongjupuri). Seongjugut (seongjupuri)
The sangsoe sings the lines (or text, called saseol) of seongjupuri, the rite to the household god. Jowanggut
The troupe goes to the kitchen where the sangsoe sings the lines of the rite to the kitchen god. Jangdokgut (jangdokpuri)
The troupe goes out to the crock terrace (jangdokdae) and the sangsoe sings the lines of the rite of the crock terrace. Yongwanggut (umulgut)
The troupe goes to the well and the sangsoe sings the lines of the well rite, or rite to the dragon god (yongwang). Goggangut (storehouse), 9. jeongnanggut (outhouse), 10. somagut, 11. bangagut (mill), and 12. butteulgut are performed in this order. In each part, the sangsoe sings the lines. Because jisinbapgi involves treading on the household gods and appeasing them with well wishing words, the troupe visits every part of the house. After going round the house, they go to the front yard and gather in front of the liquor table to eat and drink and play a bout of music before heading to the next house.

The troupe for the entertainment-based pangut of Cheongdo Chasan Nongak consists of 50 people. First, two teams of 25 people each march forward in three rows with the taepyeongso (double-reed oboe) player, napal player, cheongwang flag and farming flag (nonggi) at front. Playing the jajinmori rhythm the troupe bows to the audience under the command of the sangsoe. For this greeting the taepyeongso player, napal player, cheongwang flag and farming flag bearers stand in one row at the front while everyone else moves under the direction of the sangsoe.

Gutgeorigut
The cheonwang flag and farming flag are set up and the troupe stands in three rows. The sangsoe plays the joreumsoe (two-strike) rhythm and at his command the troupe bows and greets the audience. Then moving in one line in the counterclockwise direction they perform a slow deotbaegi dance to the gutgeorigut. The sangsoe and other soe players go into the center of the circle and play the mujeongjakgung rhythm and make the jeong character (井) for “well” and direct the rest of the musicians. Bujeonggut
Intended to chase away any sundry spirits who were not chased out with the gutgeorigut, this is performed to the saemachi (three-hit) rhythm. When the sangsoe stops playing the musicians move out of one big circle to make two concentric circles. As the leftover spirits can’t be chased away or caught single-handedly, this rite is performed to chase them away in pairs to prevent any accidents and pray for peace. Yeonpunggigut
From two circles they make one big circle again to the hohottakttak rhythm and jump lightly into the air to express the sense of satisfaction felt at chasing away the remaining spirits. Jajinmorigut
Playing the jajinmori rhythm the musicians move in a circle in the counterclockwise direction then play a deotbaegi rhythm to boost the mood. To make one circle from two circles in the previous yeonpunggigut the soe is played. This act is intended to enhance the mood even further, after chasing the spirits away in the bujeonggut and feeling happy about it in the yeonpunggigut. Mullaegut
This symbolizes the farming of cotton and weaving of cloth using a spinning wheel and hence prayers and wishes for a good harvest. It depicts the unraveling of thread and signifies that one must weave cloth and make clothes if one is to do the farming and take part in other activities. Jingut
This is the process of walking in one line to work in the fields after making clothes of cotton, and reveals traces of the old duregut format. The sangsoe plays the janjinmori rhythm and when he gives the signal the circle moves in the clockwise direction, and when he gives the signal again on the gong they form three concentric circles, and when he signals again with the gong they form four circles. Nongsagut
Under the direction of the sangsoe, the beopgo players spin the streamers on their hats as they imitate farming movements. It starts with the musicians forming a line under the lead of the sangsoe, and can be called a rite to pray for a good harvest. The farming procedures acted out by the beopgo players, in order, are 1) sowing the seeds, 2) pulling the seedlings, 3) transplanting the seedlings, 4) weeding the rice paddies, 5) cutting the rice plants, 6) threshing, 7) gathering the rice stalks, 8) winnowing and 9) stacking rice sacks. Janggunori (performance of janggu players)
The janggu players go into the middle of the circle and stand in two lines facing each other as they play their drums and dance, changing places then joining the circle and coming back out again. Bukchum (drum dance)
While the buk players dance gaily to a fast jajinmori rhythm, they rest the drum on the right foot and turn on the spot to the left. Joreumgut
The highlight of Chasan Nongak, this act is performed to express the joy felt when the rice has been stored in sacks after a good harvest. Moving in a circle in the counterclockwise direction, the small gongs are played joyfully and rapidly. Obanggut
This act signifies the end result of one year’s worth of farming, when cheonwang, the heavenly king, has been well fed and worshipped. The Cheonwang flag, farming flag, taepyeongso and wooden nabal are left in the center of the circle while joreumsoe is played and the musicians roll themselves into spiral formation and then move out of formation in the five directions (obang), north, south, east, west and the center.

Cheongdo Chasan Nongak is a form of nongak that grew out of the cheongwang flag battle between villages in Punggak-myeon. Incorporating dance and folk song with percussion music and mock farming performances, it is especially noted for its deotbaegi dance and rapid, exciting gutgeori rhythms, a feature of the music and dance of Gyeongsang- do. The rhythms have 12 variations with 12 rhythms and 36-hit rhythms and at each section of the pangut, according to the rhythm played by the sangsoe, various line formations are made one after the other. In addition, the fact that the nongsagut is performed with song is another characteristic. Cheongdo Changsan Nongak maintains an oldtime feel, steady with an old hometown beauty and roughness. Many of its rhythm patterns are single rhythms that gradually grow faster and harder. They are unadorned and spirited and are handed down as a representative form of the nongak of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province.