Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori(安城男寺堂风物游戏)

Headword

안성남사당풍물놀이 ( 安城男寺堂风物游戏 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimHeonsun(金憲宣)

Pungmulnori (folk music and dance), or nongak (farmers’ music), performed by troupes of male itinerant entertainers (namsadangpae) passed down in Anseong, Gyeonggi-do Province.

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori, designated as Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 21 of Gyeonggi-do Province on September 30, 1997, has its roots in the Korean rural institutions called dure, which are communal farm labor groups, and nanjang, an open market performance, and is based on the forms of dure and nanjang handed down in the city of Anseong. Because Anseong was rich in commodities and actively traded with its three neighboring provinces, nanjang and other nongak competitions developed in the area. This fact shows that nanjang was a vibrant part of the culture of Anseong and that the dure were also well developed and in full operation in the area.

Namsadangpae are groups of itinerant male entertainers, descended from the sadangpae, or groups of female itinerant entertainers. Sadangpae were comprised of geosa (grhapati in Sanskrit, lay Buddhists) and sadang (female entertainers), and they wandered around the nation singing japga (lit. vulgar songs) and performing sogonori (hand-held drum performance). Unlike sadang troupes, namsadang troupes consisted mostly of men. They travelled around and at times provided male prostitution service.

As male itinerant entertainers active in the late Joseon period, namsadangpae received a token of evidence (sinpyo) from Buddhist temples, and begged for alms in return for playing instruments, singing and dancing, and divided the alms with the temples. The emergence of famous sangsoe (lead gong players) from Anseong is connected with this tradition. Kim Am-deok (commonly called Baudeogi) from the late Joseon period, who hailed from this area, was the first woman in Korea to serve as leader of a namsadangpae. She left behind a famous folk song, handed down orally, that enables us to infer the traditions of Anseong namsadangpae. From the song, it can be presumed that Baudeogi appeared in the transitional period when the female groups of itinerant entertainers gave way to all-male groups.

Anseong namsadangpae carried out six types of performances: pungmulnori, eoreum (tight-rope walking), salpan (floor acrobatics), seolmi (puppet show), beona (saucer spinning), and deotboegi (mask dance). This tradition has been cut off in recent years and barely remains, with the exception of pungmulnori, which has been handed down intact to the present. However, some view that no part of the Anseong namsadang performance has been handed down intact, because the repertoire originally consisted of nothing other than nongak, or because they simply adapted acts that other groups of entertainers had already been performing.

The jinpuri (line formations) that they performed were accompanied by rhythm patterns. For example, according to the shape of the formation jinpuri includes dangsanbeollim, sipjageori (cross-shaped formation), satongbaegi (circular file in four directions), jwauchigi (moving in a circle, pausing for a while, moving three steps to the left and then to the right, forward and backward), soripan (singing performance), dollimbeokgu (spinning the dharma drum), and ddabeokgu. Individual performances includes sangsoenori (lead gong player’s performance), jingnori (large gong performance), bungnori (barrel drum performance), janggunori (hourglass-shaped drum performance), and beokgunori (dharma drum performance). These performances have enabled dynamic and symbolic expression of pungmulnori, and represent the true artistry of the folk music and dance performed by namsadangpae. In this regard, it should be noted that pungmulnori is not a simple instrumental performance but has a composite character.

However, along with the unique rhythm patterns, one of the things that breathes new life into Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori is mudongnori, the varied performances of young children riding on the shoulders of the adult performers’. Mudongnori is performed in various formations with japseak (actors), mudong (child performers, lit. dancing child) and saemi (youngest mudong) following the troupe in the back. They present a variety of dance moves and movements fit to be performed high on the shoulders of other performers. Specifically, distinctive moves include imudong (one child performer on top of an adult performer’s shoulders), sammudong (three mudong), samudong (four mudong), omudong (five mudong), donggori (acrobatics), gongmadan (circus acts), and saemibatgi (lit. receiving the youngest mudong). Although mudongnori has its roots in the technical and artistic aspects of performance, its fundamental logic comes from the notion of praying for fertility. Saemibatgi in particular, where the youngest mudong is placed in the arms of another mudong, functions as a sort of homoeopathic magic as it takes the form of mock sexual intercourse between man and woman.

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori does not have a clear regional color because it is the product of putting into practice the characteristics of various groups of roaming entertainers. However, the structure has been reorganized to center on rhythm patterns in compliance with its performance and transmission based on the rhythm patterns performed by certain sangsoe.

Because the Anseong namsadangpae served as home base for all groups of male itinerant entertainers, their pungmulnori is closely related to the namsadangpae performances held today. In particular, it has been the source of the samulnori form of nongak. Also, it demonstrates the dynamism of mudongnori (child performances) and refinement of the archetypical aspects of the rhythm patterns of Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do provinces. In this respect, Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori is a regional version of nongak that forms the foundation of Utdari Pungmul, which is handed down in the Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do regions, and the pungmul performed by groups of entertainers as well. The significance of Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori can hence be found in three factors. First, its structure and rhythms reflecting regional characteristics are organized with a focus on the sangsoe (lead small gong player) Kim Gi-bok. Second, it is inseparably related to the pungmulnori performed by all namsadangpae. Third, it is the foundation for a broader category of pungmulnori called utdari pungmul.

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori
Headword

안성남사당풍물놀이 ( 安城男寺堂风物游戏 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimHeonsun(金憲宣)

Pungmulnori (folk music and dance), or nongak (farmers’ music), performed by troupes of male itinerant entertainers (namsadangpae) passed down in Anseong, Gyeonggi-do Province.

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori, designated as Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 21 of Gyeonggi-do Province on September 30, 1997, has its roots in the Korean rural institutions called dure, which are communal farm labor groups, and nanjang, an open market performance, and is based on the forms of dure and nanjang handed down in the city of Anseong. Because Anseong was rich in commodities and actively traded with its three neighboring provinces, nanjang and other nongak competitions developed in the area. This fact shows that nanjang was a vibrant part of the culture of Anseong and that the dure were also well developed and in full operation in the area.

Namsadangpae are groups of itinerant male entertainers, descended from the sadangpae, or groups of female itinerant entertainers. Sadangpae were comprised of geosa (grhapati in Sanskrit, lay Buddhists) and sadang (female entertainers), and they wandered around the nation singing japga (lit. vulgar songs) and performing sogonori (hand-held drum performance). Unlike sadang troupes, namsadang troupes consisted mostly of men. They travelled around and at times provided male prostitution service.

As male itinerant entertainers active in the late Joseon period, namsadangpae received a token of evidence (sinpyo) from Buddhist temples, and begged for alms in return for playing instruments, singing and dancing, and divided the alms with the temples. The emergence of famous sangsoe (lead gong players) from Anseong is connected with this tradition. Kim Am-deok (commonly called Baudeogi) from the late Joseon period, who hailed from this area, was the first woman in Korea to serve as leader of a namsadangpae. She left behind a famous folk song, handed down orally, that enables us to infer the traditions of Anseong namsadangpae. From the song, it can be presumed that Baudeogi appeared in the transitional period when the female groups of itinerant entertainers gave way to all-male groups.

Anseong namsadangpae carried out six types of performances: pungmulnori, eoreum (tight-rope walking), salpan (floor acrobatics), seolmi (puppet show), beona (saucer spinning), and deotboegi (mask dance). This tradition has been cut off in recent years and barely remains, with the exception of pungmulnori, which has been handed down intact to the present. However, some view that no part of the Anseong namsadang performance has been handed down intact, because the repertoire originally consisted of nothing other than nongak, or because they simply adapted acts that other groups of entertainers had already been performing.

The jinpuri (line formations) that they performed were accompanied by rhythm patterns. For example, according to the shape of the formation jinpuri includes dangsanbeollim, sipjageori (cross-shaped formation), satongbaegi (circular file in four directions), jwauchigi (moving in a circle, pausing for a while, moving three steps to the left and then to the right, forward and backward), soripan (singing performance), dollimbeokgu (spinning the dharma drum), and ddabeokgu. Individual performances includes sangsoenori (lead gong player’s performance), jingnori (large gong performance), bungnori (barrel drum performance), janggunori (hourglass-shaped drum performance), and beokgunori (dharma drum performance). These performances have enabled dynamic and symbolic expression of pungmulnori, and represent the true artistry of the folk music and dance performed by namsadangpae. In this regard, it should be noted that pungmulnori is not a simple instrumental performance but has a composite character.

However, along with the unique rhythm patterns, one of the things that breathes new life into Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori is mudongnori, the varied performances of young children riding on the shoulders of the adult performers’. Mudongnori is performed in various formations with japseak (actors), mudong (child performers, lit. dancing child) and saemi (youngest mudong) following the troupe in the back. They present a variety of dance moves and movements fit to be performed high on the shoulders of other performers. Specifically, distinctive moves include imudong (one child performer on top of an adult performer’s shoulders), sammudong (three mudong), samudong (four mudong), omudong (five mudong), donggori (acrobatics), gongmadan (circus acts), and saemibatgi (lit. receiving the youngest mudong). Although mudongnori has its roots in the technical and artistic aspects of performance, its fundamental logic comes from the notion of praying for fertility. Saemibatgi in particular, where the youngest mudong is placed in the arms of another mudong, functions as a sort of homoeopathic magic as it takes the form of mock sexual intercourse between man and woman.

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori does not have a clear regional color because it is the product of putting into practice the characteristics of various groups of roaming entertainers. However, the structure has been reorganized to center on rhythm patterns in compliance with its performance and transmission based on the rhythm patterns performed by certain sangsoe.

Because the Anseong namsadangpae served as home base for all groups of male itinerant entertainers, their pungmulnori is closely related to the namsadangpae performances held today. In particular, it has been the source of the samulnori form of nongak. Also, it demonstrates the dynamism of mudongnori (child performances) and refinement of the archetypical aspects of the rhythm patterns of Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do provinces. In this respect, Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori is a regional version of nongak that forms the foundation of Utdari Pungmul, which is handed down in the Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do regions, and the pungmul performed by groups of entertainers as well. The significance of Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori can hence be found in three factors. First, its structure and rhythms reflecting regional characteristics are organized with a focus on the sangsoe (lead small gong player) Kim Gi-bok. Second, it is inseparably related to the pungmulnori performed by all namsadangpae. Third, it is the foundation for a broader category of pungmulnori called utdari pungmul.