Sogonori(小鼓戏)

Headword

소고놀이 ( 小鼓戏 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer LeeKyungyup(李京燁)

Drumming and dancing performance of the sogo (small hand-held drum) player(s).

The name sogo (Kor. 소고, Chin. 小鼓) literally means “small drum, ” but the instrument actually varies in name and size depending on region. These differences arose because such musical instruments were handmade by the villagers themselves in the past. When making sogo, the villagers used the round frame of a sieve, an everyday implement. Leather was rare, so they also used cloth in place of leather. As cloth produces no sound when used as it is, it was repeatedly oiled and dried and the gap filled with candle drippings to make the drum hard enough to be used as a musical instrument.

In addition to sogo, the small hand-held drum goes by various other names such as sogu, beopgo, and beokgu. If sogo and sogu derived their names from the size of the drum, beopgo comes from a Buddhist instrument (Kor. 법고, Chin. 法鼓, lit. dharma drum), and beokgu seems to have derived from beopgo. Sogo and beopgo are often used together, while the name beopgo or beokgu is used instead of sogo in some areas. Also, both sogo and beopgo are included in the formation of Gangneung Nongak and Busan Ami Nongak.

Sogonori is closely related to the characteristics of the musical instrument, which has a small sound and hence makes no big effect. As the sound of the sogo cannot be heard well when played with the kkwaenggwari (small hand-held gong) and other nongak instruments, the sogo functions as a prop for dance rather than as a musical instrument. It is true that the sogo players pay more attention to the expression of gestures and artistic ecstasy and exhilaration than the way they sound the drum. This is why the term sogochum (sogo dance) is widely used.

There are two types of sogonori: one is called chaesangsogonori, performing dances while twirling a chaesangmo (spinning-streamer hat), and the other gokkalsogonori, performed while wearing the peaked hat (gokkal) while dancing. Chaesangsogonori features a relatively small drum because the drummer performs head moves with the hat on, but gokkal sogonori features a larger drum as the player strikes the drum to produce sound and does not make head movements. Although both types of sogonori have been passed down across the nation, nongak troupes perform chaesangsogonori more often. Chaesangsogonori is centered on the movement of the spinning-streamer hat and accompanying dance moves. Oesangmo (lit. single sangmo), in which the hat streamer is twirled on one side only, and yangsangmo (lit. double sangmo), in which the hat streamer is twirled on both sides, have become prevalent nationwide. Sasa, in which the hat streamer is twirled two times on either side, is also widely spread in Korea. The movement of twirling the hat streamer back and forth is also widespread across the nation but under a different name.

As there are no hat streamer twirling movements, gokkalsogonori is centered on foot movements. This type of sogo performance led to the development of heoteunchum (impromptu individual dance) and movements such as raising an upended drum over the head, then lowering it in front of the body. Sogonori movements include the mimicking of many farming activities, such as drawing water or working in the fields and rice paddies. Also, nongsapuri (mimed farming performance), which imitates the whole process of farming, is often executed in the form of sogonori. Examples of gokkalsogonori movements include apduitmyeonchigi (hitting the drum front and back), mulpugi (drawing water), beolyeogyeopchigi (spreading and overlapping hands), anjaseosogochigi (hitting the drum in seated position), palgeori (imitating hanger with the arms), samojaebi (hitting the drum back and forth), jegibeopgo (playing the drum while lifting the feet in front in turn), jwauolligi (raising the drum to the left and right), yeonpungdae (a series of rapid turns moving in a circle in the counterclockwise direction, facing the outside with the upper body bent forward), gutgeorichum (shamanic performance dance), jabandwijipgi (sideways flips), palbeolligi (stretching out the arms), ddangchigi (hitting the ground), and garangimiteurosogochigi (hitting the drum between the legs).

Sogonori is a visual presentation of the collective exhilaration of nongak (farmers’ music). chaesang sogonori and gokkal sogonori express showy, colorful dance movements in their own unique ways. Unlike the rhythm-centered soe (or kkwaenggwari) or janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) performances, sogonori is dance- or movement-centered. While serving a supportive role in the performances and rhythm patterns of other instruments, sogonori enlivens the whole performance. Compared to other instrumental forms of nori (performance, lit. play), sogonori consists of a proportionately large number of performers to make the nongak performance visually rich. It also reflects regional characteristics, testifying to diversity in the transmission of nongak.

Sogonori

Sogonori
Headword

소고놀이 ( 小鼓戏 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer LeeKyungyup(李京燁)

Drumming and dancing performance of the sogo (small hand-held drum) player(s).

The name sogo (Kor. 소고, Chin. 小鼓) literally means “small drum, ” but the instrument actually varies in name and size depending on region. These differences arose because such musical instruments were handmade by the villagers themselves in the past. When making sogo, the villagers used the round frame of a sieve, an everyday implement. Leather was rare, so they also used cloth in place of leather. As cloth produces no sound when used as it is, it was repeatedly oiled and dried and the gap filled with candle drippings to make the drum hard enough to be used as a musical instrument.

In addition to sogo, the small hand-held drum goes by various other names such as sogu, beopgo, and beokgu. If sogo and sogu derived their names from the size of the drum, beopgo comes from a Buddhist instrument (Kor. 법고, Chin. 法鼓, lit. dharma drum), and beokgu seems to have derived from beopgo. Sogo and beopgo are often used together, while the name beopgo or beokgu is used instead of sogo in some areas. Also, both sogo and beopgo are included in the formation of Gangneung Nongak and Busan Ami Nongak.

Sogonori is closely related to the characteristics of the musical instrument, which has a small sound and hence makes no big effect. As the sound of the sogo cannot be heard well when played with the kkwaenggwari (small hand-held gong) and other nongak instruments, the sogo functions as a prop for dance rather than as a musical instrument. It is true that the sogo players pay more attention to the expression of gestures and artistic ecstasy and exhilaration than the way they sound the drum. This is why the term sogochum (sogo dance) is widely used.

There are two types of sogonori: one is called chaesangsogonori, performing dances while twirling a chaesangmo (spinning-streamer hat), and the other gokkalsogonori, performed while wearing the peaked hat (gokkal) while dancing. Chaesangsogonori features a relatively small drum because the drummer performs head moves with the hat on, but gokkal sogonori features a larger drum as the player strikes the drum to produce sound and does not make head movements. Although both types of sogonori have been passed down across the nation, nongak troupes perform chaesangsogonori more often. Chaesangsogonori is centered on the movement of the spinning-streamer hat and accompanying dance moves. Oesangmo (lit. single sangmo), in which the hat streamer is twirled on one side only, and yangsangmo (lit. double sangmo), in which the hat streamer is twirled on both sides, have become prevalent nationwide. Sasa, in which the hat streamer is twirled two times on either side, is also widely spread in Korea. The movement of twirling the hat streamer back and forth is also widespread across the nation but under a different name.

As there are no hat streamer twirling movements, gokkalsogonori is centered on foot movements. This type of sogo performance led to the development of heoteunchum (impromptu individual dance) and movements such as raising an upended drum over the head, then lowering it in front of the body. Sogonori movements include the mimicking of many farming activities, such as drawing water or working in the fields and rice paddies. Also, nongsapuri (mimed farming performance), which imitates the whole process of farming, is often executed in the form of sogonori. Examples of gokkalsogonori movements include apduitmyeonchigi (hitting the drum front and back), mulpugi (drawing water), beolyeogyeopchigi (spreading and overlapping hands), anjaseosogochigi (hitting the drum in seated position), palgeori (imitating hanger with the arms), samojaebi (hitting the drum back and forth), jegibeopgo (playing the drum while lifting the feet in front in turn), jwauolligi (raising the drum to the left and right), yeonpungdae (a series of rapid turns moving in a circle in the counterclockwise direction, facing the outside with the upper body bent forward), gutgeorichum (shamanic performance dance), jabandwijipgi (sideways flips), palbeolligi (stretching out the arms), ddangchigi (hitting the ground), and garangimiteurosogochigi (hitting the drum between the legs).

Sogonori is a visual presentation of the collective exhilaration of nongak (farmers’ music). chaesang sogonori and gokkal sogonori express showy, colorful dance movements in their own unique ways. Unlike the rhythm-centered soe (or kkwaenggwari) or janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) performances, sogonori is dance- or movement-centered. While serving a supportive role in the performances and rhythm patterns of other instruments, sogonori enlivens the whole performance. Compared to other instrumental forms of nori (performance, lit. play), sogonori consists of a proportionately large number of performers to make the nongak performance visually rich. It also reflects regional characteristics, testifying to diversity in the transmission of nongak.