Buan Nongak(扶安农乐)

Headword

부안농악 ( 扶安农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimIkdoo(金益斗)

Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down in Buan, Jeollabuk-do Province.

The history of Buan Nongak is traced back to Sodo (Kor. 소도, Chin. 蘇塗) in Jiban Country (Kor. 자반국, Chin. 支半國), which was one of the statelets of Mahan (a loose confederacy existing from around the 1st century BCE to the 5th century CE). Historical documents prove that durenongak (nongak accompanying work by communal farm labor groups called dure) gained wide popularity in the Buan region in the 19th century during the late Joseon Dynasty. According to a document saying that the “Homan Udo Nongak Troupe” existed in Buan, Gimje in the Jeongup region in 1927, during the period of Japanese colonial rule, it can be assumed that geollipnongak (performances to collect money or rice) and yeonyenongak (performance of nongak for entertainment) were well developed. In the 1990s, a foundation for the revival of Buan Nongak was established centered on the fameous janggu player Lee Dongwon and Na Geum-chu from a female nongak troupe. At the end of 2015, Buan-gun Nongak Troupe was founded.

The attire and composition of Buan Nongak are not fixed; the performance differs depending on time and organization. However, the oldest related document is the book “Honam Nongak” (1967), according to which the attire and arrangement of Buan Nongak are as follows: The chibok (musician’s costume) consists of a red jeogori, trousers, ganbal, straw shoes, ankle ties, head scarf, dark blue cotton cloth, a vest with tri-colored sash, while the sangsoe (lead small gong player) has colored stripes on his sleeves, ilgwang and wolgwang (metal mirror-like ornaments) on the back with a colored cloth attached. Afterwards, the costume changed and the stripes on the sleeves disappeared as well as the ilgwang (lit. sunlight) and wolgwang (lit. moonlight). The colored cloth which used to be attached on the back was brought to the front in an X shape. Depending on the performer, the sash consists of one, two or three blue, red, and yellow bands.

The yongdanggi (dragon flag) has pheasant feathers at the tip of the flagpole, while the flag itself has a dragon painted on it and a fringe of triangles (jinebal) around the edges. The farming flag (nonggi) bearer holds the flag and wears the same costume as the musicians. As for the jinbeop (choreographed line formations) of Buan Nongak, there are various types: one line (Kor. 일자진, Chin. 一字陣, lit. 一-shaped formation), two lines (Kor. 이자진, Chin. 二字陣, lit. 二-shaped formation), bakkumjin, yeoppumsari (two rows back to back squatting and looking left and right), sitting formation, the single circle formation, the double circle formation, the screw formation, ssangbanguljin (two sets of spiral formations), and obangjin (moving in five directions). The actors’ dances include the hand-motion dance and jwauchigi dance (moving to the left and right) by the child performers (mudong). Dances by the daeposu include the shoulder dance, free dance called heotteunchum, the up and down dance, and the role-playing dance. Dances for the nobleman, male clown, monk, and grandma include the individual role-playing dance, the duet dance (Kor. 대무, Chin. 對舞, lit. pair dance) and mimes. Entertainment segments of Buan Nongak include ilgwangnori and dodukjaebi (catching the thief ). In ilgwangnori the following story unfolds: the daeposu steals the gong from the sangsoe (lead small gong player) and hides it under his upper garment; then the sangsoe chases him to where the gut takes place, and they exchange stories and jokes. But the daeposu is revealed to be the theft and he returns the gong to the sangsoe. In dodukjaebi, the daeposu and sangsoe divide the whole troupe into two teams. The team led by the daeposu, the enemy, steals the nabal (the long, straight trumpet) from the other team. The two sides fight each other for a while, and finally the team led by the sangsoe lays siege to the enemy, catches the daeposu, who stole the trumpet, and punishes him. Currently two types of Buan Nongak—madangbapgi (rite to pray for the welfare of the home)/geollipgut (nongak performed for fund-raising purposes) and the entertainment-based pangut/yeonyenongak— have been handed down; however, madangbalbi gut/geollipgut are rapidly declining.

Buan Nongak has the following characteristics. First, the formation of Honam Udo Nongak is dominant. Second, in the case of native nongak, nongak from around the Dongjin River basin and nongak from the islands and coast are different in rhythm. Third, as for the attire, aspects of Honam Udo Nongak are strong, but in the case of the sogo (hand drum) player, the sangmo hat with long paper streamer attached rarely appears. Instead the peaked hat (gokkal) is far more common, which is a point of difference with Jeongeup Nongak. Fourth, in the composition of performers, balance is maintained between the actors and musicians, so both the apgut (first half of a performance) centered on the musicians and dwitgut (second half) centered on the actors are well developed.

Buan Nongak

Buan Nongak
Headword

부안농악 ( 扶安农乐 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Arts > Nongak

Writer KimIkdoo(金益斗)

Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down in Buan, Jeollabuk-do Province.

The history of Buan Nongak is traced back to Sodo (Kor. 소도, Chin. 蘇塗) in Jiban Country (Kor. 자반국, Chin. 支半國), which was one of the statelets of Mahan (a loose confederacy existing from around the 1st century BCE to the 5th century CE). Historical documents prove that durenongak (nongak accompanying work by communal farm labor groups called dure) gained wide popularity in the Buan region in the 19th century during the late Joseon Dynasty. According to a document saying that the “Homan Udo Nongak Troupe” existed in Buan, Gimje in the Jeongup region in 1927, during the period of Japanese colonial rule, it can be assumed that geollipnongak (performances to collect money or rice) and yeonyenongak (performance of nongak for entertainment) were well developed. In the 1990s, a foundation for the revival of Buan Nongak was established centered on the fameous janggu player Lee Dongwon and Na Geum-chu from a female nongak troupe. At the end of 2015, Buan-gun Nongak Troupe was founded.

The attire and composition of Buan Nongak are not fixed; the performance differs depending on time and organization. However, the oldest related document is the book “Honam Nongak” (1967), according to which the attire and arrangement of Buan Nongak are as follows: The chibok (musician’s costume) consists of a red jeogori, trousers, ganbal, straw shoes, ankle ties, head scarf, dark blue cotton cloth, a vest with tri-colored sash, while the sangsoe (lead small gong player) has colored stripes on his sleeves, ilgwang and wolgwang (metal mirror-like ornaments) on the back with a colored cloth attached. Afterwards, the costume changed and the stripes on the sleeves disappeared as well as the ilgwang (lit. sunlight) and wolgwang (lit. moonlight). The colored cloth which used to be attached on the back was brought to the front in an X shape. Depending on the performer, the sash consists of one, two or three blue, red, and yellow bands.

The yongdanggi (dragon flag) has pheasant feathers at the tip of the flagpole, while the flag itself has a dragon painted on it and a fringe of triangles (jinebal) around the edges. The farming flag (nonggi) bearer holds the flag and wears the same costume as the musicians. As for the jinbeop (choreographed line formations) of Buan Nongak, there are various types: one line (Kor. 일자진, Chin. 一字陣, lit. 一-shaped formation), two lines (Kor. 이자진, Chin. 二字陣, lit. 二-shaped formation), bakkumjin, yeoppumsari (two rows back to back squatting and looking left and right), sitting formation, the single circle formation, the double circle formation, the screw formation, ssangbanguljin (two sets of spiral formations), and obangjin (moving in five directions). The actors’ dances include the hand-motion dance and jwauchigi dance (moving to the left and right) by the child performers (mudong). Dances by the daeposu include the shoulder dance, free dance called heotteunchum, the up and down dance, and the role-playing dance. Dances for the nobleman, male clown, monk, and grandma include the individual role-playing dance, the duet dance (Kor. 대무, Chin. 對舞, lit. pair dance) and mimes. Entertainment segments of Buan Nongak include ilgwangnori and dodukjaebi (catching the thief ). In ilgwangnori the following story unfolds: the daeposu steals the gong from the sangsoe (lead small gong player) and hides it under his upper garment; then the sangsoe chases him to where the gut takes place, and they exchange stories and jokes. But the daeposu is revealed to be the theft and he returns the gong to the sangsoe. In dodukjaebi, the daeposu and sangsoe divide the whole troupe into two teams. The team led by the daeposu, the enemy, steals the nabal (the long, straight trumpet) from the other team. The two sides fight each other for a while, and finally the team led by the sangsoe lays siege to the enemy, catches the daeposu, who stole the trumpet, and punishes him. Currently two types of Buan Nongak—madangbapgi (rite to pray for the welfare of the home)/geollipgut (nongak performed for fund-raising purposes) and the entertainment-based pangut/yeonyenongak— have been handed down; however, madangbalbi gut/geollipgut are rapidly declining.

Buan Nongak has the following characteristics. First, the formation of Honam Udo Nongak is dominant. Second, in the case of native nongak, nongak from around the Dongjin River basin and nongak from the islands and coast are different in rhythm. Third, as for the attire, aspects of Honam Udo Nongak are strong, but in the case of the sogo (hand drum) player, the sangmo hat with long paper streamer attached rarely appears. Instead the peaked hat (gokkal) is far more common, which is a point of difference with Jeongeup Nongak. Fourth, in the composition of performers, balance is maintained between the actors and musicians, so both the apgut (first half of a performance) centered on the musicians and dwitgut (second half) centered on the actors are well developed.