Origin of Shaman Ancestor Goddess Chogong(初公本解)

Origin of Shaman Ancestor Goddess Chogong

Headword

초공본풀이 ( 初公本解 , Chogongbonpuri )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Literature > Folk tales > Mythology

Writer LeeSooja(李秀子)

“Chogongbonpuri”is the myth of the origin of shaman ancestor goddess Chogong, recited as part of keungut (grand ritual) on Jeju Island.

The following is a summarization of the narrative, the first section of which refers to a version recited by the shaman An Sa-in, and the section about the goddess Yujeongseungttanimagi (Minister Yu’s Daughter) to a version by Yi Jung-chun:

Daegam (State Official) from the kingdom of Imjeongguk under heaven and Buin (Lady) from the kingdom of Gimjinguk of the underworld were rich and aging but childless. At the words of Great Monk Juja from the land of Dodan on Hwanggeumsan (Golden Mountain), they offer a large donation to a Buddhist temple and give birth to a daughter, whom they name Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi (Fall Maple Long-Awaited Daughter). When the girl turns fifteen, her parents are called up by Okhwang (Jade Emperor) of the celestial kingdom to serve a post, and as they leave, they lock their daughter in a cage, ordering a maidservant to take good care of her, promising her that her serf documents will be returned to her, and this she will be freed, upon fulfilling her task. News of the daughter’s beauty spreads and three thousand scholar aristocrats offer a reward of three thousand coins to anyone who can bring back a donation from her. Great Monk Juja volunteers, and tricks her into opening her cage door to receive the donation of rice, at which moment he rubs the daughter’s head three times. When her parents return, they learn that the daughter is pregnant with the monk’s three sons and try to kill her, but not having the heart to murder five lives, they chase her out with the maidservant, along with a black cow loaded with baggage. The daughter and the maidservant journey through numerous high mountains and bridges and waters to finally reach the land of Dodan on Golden Mountain, where they meet Juja. After passing a test of winnowing rice grains, the daughter gives birth to triplets in the land of Buldo. The three brothers grow up amid hardship and take the state official examination, at which they score high but are rejected due to the fact that they are the sons of a monk, then overturn the result in an archery test, their arrows landing on the palatial gate Yeonchumun. Three thousand scholars who have failed the state examinations offer the maidservant that if she can keep the triplets from succeeding in the exam, she will be given back her serf documents, then they tie a silk money pouch around Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi’s neck and lock her up inside Samcheoncheonjeseokgung (Palace of Three Thousand Heavenly Emperors) of the underworld. The maidservant tells the triplets that their mother is dead, at which they weep, saying that passing the state examination is now meaningless, but they soon find that her grave is empty and they head to their father to save her. Juja tells his sons that in order to save their mother, they must undo the fate assigned them in their previous life, making them a shamanic instrument engraved with the characters “天地門 (Gate of Heaven and Earth) ”and staging the rituals segments Chogamje (First Invitation), Chosinmaji (First Greeting) and Siwangmajije (Ten Kings Greeting Ritual), following which he gives them instructions for saving their mother. The three brothers encounter Neodoryeong (Bachelor Neo), son of Neosame, and together they make drums and gongs, which they take to Samcheoncheonjeseokgung and play for fourteen days, and their mother is released from the underworld palace. The brothers build a golden temple for their mother, inside which they stored all their shamanic props and ritual vessels and asked their mother to guard them. Then they made sammengdu, a set of shamanic props comprising daggers, divination bowls and discs, and rattle, which they left in the temple hall. They then set off to seek revenge, carrying the divine sword siwangdaebanji, which they had made, and as they stepped inside the underworld palace Samsiwang, they encounter the goddess Yujeongseungttanimagi (Minister Yu’s Daughter).

Minister Yu’s Daughter, at age seven, was given the shamanic divination tool yukganjebi and since then suffered from temporary blindness every ten years, until age sixty-seven when she completely regained her ability to see, along with which she acquired divine insight. She helped bring back to life the infant child of Jabokjangja in the neighboring village, instructing that if the girl survives, the family should hold a shamanic ritual after ten years. The year Minister Yu’s Daughter turned seventy- seven, she was asked by Jabokjangja to officiate a ritual, but she did not know how. She fainted, and in her unconscious state arrived at a shrine in the land of Seogangbepo. The triplets at the underworld palace Samsiwang, upon hearing of the arrival of Minister Yu’s Daughter, puller her up with the silk money pouch and fed her medicinal food and drink, after which they stamped her with the royal seal eointain, presented her with three thousand shamanic books, and instructed her. Minister Yu’s Daughter came back down to the shrine, where she read all the shamanic books, then she was given, by Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi, three thousand banners, ten thousand ritual vessels, and musical instruments and metals, and she went with Bachelor Neo and the three borthers to Jabokjangja’s home in the eighboring village and staged a shamanic ritual. She arranged a ritual table as elaborate as a welcoming banquet for a state official, and greeted all the gods, as had been written in her books. The ritual procedures as laid out by Minister Yu’s Daughter in her first ritual have been preserved in present times.

“Chogongbonpuri”narrates the origins of Korean shamanistic practices, including the first shaman; the various different rituals; how shamanic props and instruments came to be; the origins of the shrine where shamanic props, instruments and vessels are kept; and the identity of Korea’s first gangsinmu, or possessed shaman. As a work of folk literature, this shamanic myth is a heroine’s tale and also a tale of female ordeal. It also falls under the category of the father-seeking tale, in which a son born in the absence of his father, sets out as an adult in search of him.

Origin of Shaman Ancestor Goddess Chogong

Origin of Shaman Ancestor Goddess Chogong
Headword

초공본풀이 ( 初公本解 , Chogongbonpuri )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Folk Literature > Folk tales > Mythology

Writer LeeSooja(李秀子)

“Chogongbonpuri”is the myth of the origin of shaman ancestor goddess Chogong, recited as part of keungut (grand ritual) on Jeju Island.

The following is a summarization of the narrative, the first section of which refers to a version recited by the shaman An Sa-in, and the section about the goddess Yujeongseungttanimagi (Minister Yu’s Daughter) to a version by Yi Jung-chun:

Daegam (State Official) from the kingdom of Imjeongguk under heaven and Buin (Lady) from the kingdom of Gimjinguk of the underworld were rich and aging but childless. At the words of Great Monk Juja from the land of Dodan on Hwanggeumsan (Golden Mountain), they offer a large donation to a Buddhist temple and give birth to a daughter, whom they name Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi (Fall Maple Long-Awaited Daughter). When the girl turns fifteen, her parents are called up by Okhwang (Jade Emperor) of the celestial kingdom to serve a post, and as they leave, they lock their daughter in a cage, ordering a maidservant to take good care of her, promising her that her serf documents will be returned to her, and this she will be freed, upon fulfilling her task. News of the daughter’s beauty spreads and three thousand scholar aristocrats offer a reward of three thousand coins to anyone who can bring back a donation from her. Great Monk Juja volunteers, and tricks her into opening her cage door to receive the donation of rice, at which moment he rubs the daughter’s head three times. When her parents return, they learn that the daughter is pregnant with the monk’s three sons and try to kill her, but not having the heart to murder five lives, they chase her out with the maidservant, along with a black cow loaded with baggage. The daughter and the maidservant journey through numerous high mountains and bridges and waters to finally reach the land of Dodan on Golden Mountain, where they meet Juja. After passing a test of winnowing rice grains, the daughter gives birth to triplets in the land of Buldo. The three brothers grow up amid hardship and take the state official examination, at which they score high but are rejected due to the fact that they are the sons of a monk, then overturn the result in an archery test, their arrows landing on the palatial gate Yeonchumun. Three thousand scholars who have failed the state examinations offer the maidservant that if she can keep the triplets from succeeding in the exam, she will be given back her serf documents, then they tie a silk money pouch around Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi’s neck and lock her up inside Samcheoncheonjeseokgung (Palace of Three Thousand Heavenly Emperors) of the underworld. The maidservant tells the triplets that their mother is dead, at which they weep, saying that passing the state examination is now meaningless, but they soon find that her grave is empty and they head to their father to save her. Juja tells his sons that in order to save their mother, they must undo the fate assigned them in their previous life, making them a shamanic instrument engraved with the characters “天地門 (Gate of Heaven and Earth) ”and staging the rituals segments Chogamje (First Invitation), Chosinmaji (First Greeting) and Siwangmajije (Ten Kings Greeting Ritual), following which he gives them instructions for saving their mother. The three brothers encounter Neodoryeong (Bachelor Neo), son of Neosame, and together they make drums and gongs, which they take to Samcheoncheonjeseokgung and play for fourteen days, and their mother is released from the underworld palace. The brothers build a golden temple for their mother, inside which they stored all their shamanic props and ritual vessels and asked their mother to guard them. Then they made sammengdu, a set of shamanic props comprising daggers, divination bowls and discs, and rattle, which they left in the temple hall. They then set off to seek revenge, carrying the divine sword siwangdaebanji, which they had made, and as they stepped inside the underworld palace Samsiwang, they encounter the goddess Yujeongseungttanimagi (Minister Yu’s Daughter).

Minister Yu’s Daughter, at age seven, was given the shamanic divination tool yukganjebi and since then suffered from temporary blindness every ten years, until age sixty-seven when she completely regained her ability to see, along with which she acquired divine insight. She helped bring back to life the infant child of Jabokjangja in the neighboring village, instructing that if the girl survives, the family should hold a shamanic ritual after ten years. The year Minister Yu’s Daughter turned seventy- seven, she was asked by Jabokjangja to officiate a ritual, but she did not know how. She fainted, and in her unconscious state arrived at a shrine in the land of Seogangbepo. The triplets at the underworld palace Samsiwang, upon hearing of the arrival of Minister Yu’s Daughter, puller her up with the silk money pouch and fed her medicinal food and drink, after which they stamped her with the royal seal eointain, presented her with three thousand shamanic books, and instructed her. Minister Yu’s Daughter came back down to the shrine, where she read all the shamanic books, then she was given, by Nogadanpungjajimengwangagissi, three thousand banners, ten thousand ritual vessels, and musical instruments and metals, and she went with Bachelor Neo and the three borthers to Jabokjangja’s home in the eighboring village and staged a shamanic ritual. She arranged a ritual table as elaborate as a welcoming banquet for a state official, and greeted all the gods, as had been written in her books. The ritual procedures as laid out by Minister Yu’s Daughter in her first ritual have been preserved in present times.

“Chogongbonpuri”narrates the origins of Korean shamanistic practices, including the first shaman; the various different rituals; how shamanic props and instruments came to be; the origins of the shrine where shamanic props, instruments and vessels are kept; and the identity of Korea’s first gangsinmu, or possessed shaman. As a work of folk literature, this shamanic myth is a heroine’s tale and also a tale of female ordeal. It also falls under the category of the father-seeking tale, in which a son born in the absence of his father, sets out as an adult in search of him.