Lit. combined service(合祀)

Lit. combined service

Headword

합사 ( 合祀 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Rites of Passage > Korean Rites of Passage > Jerye

Writer KimMiyoung(金美榮)

Honoring two or more ancestors together in a single memorial rite.

There are largely two types of hapsa. One is where memorial rites for biwi (Kor. 비위, Chin. 妣位, ancestral tablets of the deceased mother and older generation female ancestors) are skipped and instead held together with the memorial rites for gowi (Kor. 고위, Chin. 考位, ancestral tablets of the deceased father and older generation male ancestors). The other is honoring the deceased ancestors together at a single memorial rite held on a certain day.

More specifically, hapsa can be classified into four types. The first type refers to a joint memorial rite for the husband and wife, separate for each generation—father and mother, grandfather and grandmother, great-grandfather and great-grandmother, great-great-grandfather and great-greatgrandmother. The rites are usually held on the death anniversary of the male ancestor. The second type is holding gijesa (Kor. 기제사, Chin. 忌祭祀, death anniversary rite) separately for each parent, and a joint gijesa each for the grandparents, great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents on the anniversary of the death of the male ancestor. The third type is holding a joint memorial rite for the parents and grandparents, and a single rite for both the great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents on the death anniversary of the great-great-grandfather. This reduces the number of gijesa to three per year. The fourth type is a single memorial rite for all four generation ancestors, which is held either on the death anniversary of the great-great-grandfather or the great-grandfather, or the Sunday following the earliest death anniversary of the year.

Holding a single memorial rite for both male and female ancestors on the death anniversary of the male ancestor is the norm these days. This is closely related to the marriage customs of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) where men’s remarriage was institutionally accepted.

Lit. combined service

Lit. combined service
Headword

합사 ( 合祀 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Rites of Passage > Korean Rites of Passage > Jerye

Writer KimMiyoung(金美榮)

Honoring two or more ancestors together in a single memorial rite.

There are largely two types of hapsa. One is where memorial rites for biwi (Kor. 비위, Chin. 妣位, ancestral tablets of the deceased mother and older generation female ancestors) are skipped and instead held together with the memorial rites for gowi (Kor. 고위, Chin. 考位, ancestral tablets of the deceased father and older generation male ancestors). The other is honoring the deceased ancestors together at a single memorial rite held on a certain day.

More specifically, hapsa can be classified into four types. The first type refers to a joint memorial rite for the husband and wife, separate for each generation—father and mother, grandfather and grandmother, great-grandfather and great-grandmother, great-great-grandfather and great-greatgrandmother. The rites are usually held on the death anniversary of the male ancestor. The second type is holding gijesa (Kor. 기제사, Chin. 忌祭祀, death anniversary rite) separately for each parent, and a joint gijesa each for the grandparents, great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents on the anniversary of the death of the male ancestor. The third type is holding a joint memorial rite for the parents and grandparents, and a single rite for both the great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents on the death anniversary of the great-great-grandfather. This reduces the number of gijesa to three per year. The fourth type is a single memorial rite for all four generation ancestors, which is held either on the death anniversary of the great-great-grandfather or the great-grandfather, or the Sunday following the earliest death anniversary of the year.

Holding a single memorial rite for both male and female ancestors on the death anniversary of the male ancestor is the norm these days. This is closely related to the marriage customs of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) where men’s remarriage was institutionally accepted.