October Rite(上月告祀)

October Rite

Headword

상달고사 ( 上月告祀 , Sangdal Gosa )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs > Winter > 10th Lunar month > Rites

Writer KimMyungja(金明子)

Sangdal gosa (Kor. 상달고사, Chin. 上月告祀, lit. October rite) refers to the rite held in the tenth lunar month in homage to household gods. The rite is performed on a date deemed auspicious; especially favorable for the ceremony is the Day of the Horse called Oil (Kor. 오일, Chin. 午日, lit. Horse Day). All gods overseeing the safety and peace of a household are worshipped, including seongju (Kor. 성주, household guardian god), josang (Kor. 조상, Chin. 祖上, ancestor god), jowang (Kor. 조왕, Chin. 竈王, lord of the kitchen), and samsin (Kor. 삼신, Chin. 三神, god of childbearing). Sangdal gosa may be an informal rite prepared and officiated by the mistress of the house or a more formal one for which a professional shaman is called. Depending on the region and actual proceedings, the rite is also known as gaeul gosa (Kor. 가을고사, lit. autumn rite), seongjuje (Kor. 성주제, ceremony for the household guardian god), seongjugut (Kor. 성주굿, shamanistic rite for the household guardian god), seongju bajigut (Kor. 성주받이굿, shamanistic rite welcoming the household guardian god), antaek (Kor. 안택, rite for the peace of the house), antaekgut (Kor. 안택굿, shamanistic rite for the peace of the house), dosin (Kor. 도신, Chin. 禱神, praying to the god), or jisinje (Kor. 지신제, Chin. 地神祭, ceremony for the earth god). Households offer rice cake with red beans cooked in a large crock steamer and pray for the peace, prosperity and health of all its family members. Some rice cake is also offered on an altar set up inside the stable, in hope of assuring the health of the horses.

Seongju is considered the chieftain of all household gods. The shamanistic song about seongju which is sung during a seongju rite tells, for example, the story of how the heavenly god descended to Earth and taught human beings how to build a house. Thus, seongju became the highest deity who reigns in a home. One of the local variants of this rite, known as seongju gosa (Kor. 성주고사), reflects the particular prominence of seongju and is performed on a large scale with a shaman presiding.

As part of household god worship, farming households kept grain-filled jars called sinju danji (Kor. 신주단지, lit. spirit jars). Depending on the god for whom they were intended, these jars can be classified as seongju danji (Kor. 성주단지, lit. household guardian god [Seonju] jars), teoju danji (Kor. 터주단지, lit. earth lord jars), josang danji (Kor. 조상단지, lit. ancestor jars), and samsin danji (Kor. 삼신단지, lit. child-bearing god [Samsin] jars). During the October rite, the old grain in the jars was replaced with newly-harvested grain. The old grain was prepared into a meal or baked into a cake and consumed. Good luck would come, only if the old grain was eaten by family members as it kept the good fortune inside the four walls of a house. Offering the grain from a spirit jar to an outsider, especially one considered impure, could have negative consequences on the welfare of the family.

In a farming cycle that divides the year into four periods (seeding period, growth period, harvest period, and a storage period) the tenth lunar month corresponds to the harvest period. Although some of the new crops are harvested around Chuseok (Kor. 추석, Chin. 秋夕, Harvest Festival) in the eighth lunar month, the main part of the harvest falls during the ninth month and lasts until the tenth month. The October rite, therefore, combines the characteristics of a thanksgiving festival with a ritual of offering new grains to the spirits.

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October Rite

October Rite
Headword

상달고사 ( 上月告祀 , Sangdal Gosa )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs > Winter > 10th Lunar month > Rites

Writer KimMyungja(金明子)

Sangdal gosa (Kor. 상달고사, Chin. 上月告祀, lit. October rite) refers to the rite held in the tenth lunar month in homage to household gods. The rite is performed on a date deemed auspicious; especially favorable for the ceremony is the Day of the Horse called Oil (Kor. 오일, Chin. 午日, lit. Horse Day). All gods overseeing the safety and peace of a household are worshipped, including seongju (Kor. 성주, household guardian god), josang (Kor. 조상, Chin. 祖上, ancestor god), jowang (Kor. 조왕, Chin. 竈王, lord of the kitchen), and samsin (Kor. 삼신, Chin. 三神, god of childbearing). Sangdal gosa may be an informal rite prepared and officiated by the mistress of the house or a more formal one for which a professional shaman is called. Depending on the region and actual proceedings, the rite is also known as gaeul gosa (Kor. 가을고사, lit. autumn rite), seongjuje (Kor. 성주제, ceremony for the household guardian god), seongjugut (Kor. 성주굿, shamanistic rite for the household guardian god), seongju bajigut (Kor. 성주받이굿, shamanistic rite welcoming the household guardian god), antaek (Kor. 안택, rite for the peace of the house), antaekgut (Kor. 안택굿, shamanistic rite for the peace of the house), dosin (Kor. 도신, Chin. 禱神, praying to the god), or jisinje (Kor. 지신제, Chin. 地神祭, ceremony for the earth god). Households offer rice cake with red beans cooked in a large crock steamer and pray for the peace, prosperity and health of all its family members. Some rice cake is also offered on an altar set up inside the stable, in hope of assuring the health of the horses.

Seongju is considered the chieftain of all household gods. The shamanistic song about seongju which is sung during a seongju rite tells, for example, the story of how the heavenly god descended to Earth and taught human beings how to build a house. Thus, seongju became the highest deity who reigns in a home. One of the local variants of this rite, known as seongju gosa (Kor. 성주고사), reflects the particular prominence of seongju and is performed on a large scale with a shaman presiding.

As part of household god worship, farming households kept grain-filled jars called sinju danji (Kor. 신주단지, lit. spirit jars). Depending on the god for whom they were intended, these jars can be classified as seongju danji (Kor. 성주단지, lit. household guardian god [Seonju] jars), teoju danji (Kor. 터주단지, lit. earth lord jars), josang danji (Kor. 조상단지, lit. ancestor jars), and samsin danji (Kor. 삼신단지, lit. child-bearing god [Samsin] jars). During the October rite, the old grain in the jars was replaced with newly-harvested grain. The old grain was prepared into a meal or baked into a cake and consumed. Good luck would come, only if the old grain was eaten by family members as it kept the good fortune inside the four walls of a house. Offering the grain from a spirit jar to an outsider, especially one considered impure, could have negative consequences on the welfare of the family.

In a farming cycle that divides the year into four periods (seeding period, growth period, harvest period, and a storage period) the tenth lunar month corresponds to the harvest period. Although some of the new crops are harvested around Chuseok (Kor. 추석, Chin. 秋夕, Harvest Festival) in the eighth lunar month, the main part of the harvest falls during the ninth month and lasts until the tenth month. The October rite, therefore, combines the characteristics of a thanksgiving festival with a ritual of offering new grains to the spirits.