Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region(南海岸別神-)

Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region

Headword

남해안별신굿 ( 南海岸別神- , Namhaean Byeolsingut )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs

Writer HaHyogil(河孝吉)

Namhaean Byeolsingut (Kor. 남해안별신굿, Chin. 南海岸別神-, Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region) is a village ritual characteristic of the southern coastal towns and island communities such as Tongyeong and Geoje Island. These rituals, expressing hopes for the peace and safety of the village community and a bountiful catch by fishermen, are performed on a grand scale at the beginning of the first lunar month. Depending on the village, the ritual may be held once a year or once every two or three years. Namhaean Byeolsingut has been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 82-D in the category of “fishing rites.” This rite is presided over by a shaman from a multi-generation family of shamans or a musician belonging to such family. Hereditary shamanistic priesthood is a phenomenon widely observed in southern Korea.

When a daemo shaman (Kor. 대모, lit. head shaman) receives a request from a village to perform a byeolsingut, he travels to the village, accompanied by a team of musicians and jomu (Kor. 조무, Chin. 助巫, lit. assistant shamans). They usually arrive at the village in the afternoon on the ritual day and first observe the custom called deulmaji (Kor. 들맞이). Deulmaji consists of touring the town through its oldest streets, while playing a tune known as cheongsinak (Kor. 청신악, Chin. 請神樂, lit. music to invoke the god) on the daegeum (Kor. 대금, Chin. 大笒, large bamboo flute). This procession announces to the villagers the beginning of byeolsingut and is also meant to notify the village’s god that a shaman has arrived and is going to perform the ritual. Next, the shamans and musicians head towards the designated venue for the rite (usually the village congregation house) and exchange greetings with the village representatives. They discuss compensation for the event (wages for the shaman troupe) and once agreed, the actual ritual starts.

Namhaean Byeolsingut is a ritual with multiple segments, performed in a designated order. On the first day of the ritual, following deulmaji are moksindanggut (Kor. 목신당굿) and gut jangmodaek bujeonggut (Kor. 굿장모댁 부정굿). Starting on the morning of the second day, the shaman and his troupe proceed with irwolmajigut (Kor. 일월맞이굿), golmaegigut (Kor. 골매기굿), yongwanggut (Kor. 용왕굿), bujeonggut (Kor. 부정굿), gamanggut (Kor. 가망굿), jeseokgut (Kor. 제석굿), seonanggut (Kor. 서낭굿), daejabigut (Kor. 대잡이굿), keungut (Kor. 큰굿, comprising of sevent segments: songut 손굿, sonnim puri 손님풀이, gogeum yeokdae 고금역대, hwangcheon mundap 황천문답, yeoltu chungmun 열두축문, hwansaeng tanil 환생탄일 and siwang tanil 시왕탄일), daesin puri (Kor. 대신풀이), gununggut (Kor. 군웅굿) and georigut (Kor. 거리굿, also known as siseokgut 시석굿). The venue for the moksindanggut segment is the mid-point between the village and the shoreline, known as moksindang (Kor. 목신당).

Namhaean Byeolsingut is famous for its rich musical component, said to have been its distinctive feature since early times. Musical instruments used in this type of ritual include the piri (Kor. 피리, small reed flute), jeotdae (Kor. 젓대, flute), haegeum (Kor. 해금, Chin. 奚琴, two stringed zither), hojeok (Kor. 호적, Chin. 胡笛, conical double-reed oboe), janggu (Kor. 장구, Chin. 杖鼓, hourglass drum), jing (Kor. 징, gongs), and buk (Kor. 북, drums). One important characteristic of Namhaean Byeolsingut is that it begins and ends with a flute solo performance of cheongsinak and songsinak (Kor. 송신악, Chin. 送神樂, lit. farewell music to the god). These tunes are intended to invoke and bid farewell to the village god. The costumes worn by officiants are also noteworthy. The shaman dons a jacket made by attaching multicolor sleeves to a long, antique-style military vest (referred to as a kwaeja (Kor. 쾌자) by the locals). This costume is similar in appearance to the clothes worn by shamans in the western coastal region during the rite known as Widowondanggut (Kor. 위도원당굿). The ornate head dress in Namhaean Byeolsingut, however, is reminiscent of the head gear worn by shamans during the fishing rites in eastern coastal areas.

Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region

Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region
Headword

남해안별신굿 ( 南海岸別神- , Namhaean Byeolsingut )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs

Writer HaHyogil(河孝吉)

Namhaean Byeolsingut (Kor. 남해안별신굿, Chin. 南海岸別神-, Village Ritual of Southern Coastal Region) is a village ritual characteristic of the southern coastal towns and island communities such as Tongyeong and Geoje Island. These rituals, expressing hopes for the peace and safety of the village community and a bountiful catch by fishermen, are performed on a grand scale at the beginning of the first lunar month. Depending on the village, the ritual may be held once a year or once every two or three years. Namhaean Byeolsingut has been designated as Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 82-D in the category of “fishing rites.” This rite is presided over by a shaman from a multi-generation family of shamans or a musician belonging to such family. Hereditary shamanistic priesthood is a phenomenon widely observed in southern Korea.

When a daemo shaman (Kor. 대모, lit. head shaman) receives a request from a village to perform a byeolsingut, he travels to the village, accompanied by a team of musicians and jomu (Kor. 조무, Chin. 助巫, lit. assistant shamans). They usually arrive at the village in the afternoon on the ritual day and first observe the custom called deulmaji (Kor. 들맞이). Deulmaji consists of touring the town through its oldest streets, while playing a tune known as cheongsinak (Kor. 청신악, Chin. 請神樂, lit. music to invoke the god) on the daegeum (Kor. 대금, Chin. 大笒, large bamboo flute). This procession announces to the villagers the beginning of byeolsingut and is also meant to notify the village’s god that a shaman has arrived and is going to perform the ritual. Next, the shamans and musicians head towards the designated venue for the rite (usually the village congregation house) and exchange greetings with the village representatives. They discuss compensation for the event (wages for the shaman troupe) and once agreed, the actual ritual starts.

Namhaean Byeolsingut is a ritual with multiple segments, performed in a designated order. On the first day of the ritual, following deulmaji are moksindanggut (Kor. 목신당굿) and gut jangmodaek bujeonggut (Kor. 굿장모댁 부정굿). Starting on the morning of the second day, the shaman and his troupe proceed with irwolmajigut (Kor. 일월맞이굿), golmaegigut (Kor. 골매기굿), yongwanggut (Kor. 용왕굿), bujeonggut (Kor. 부정굿), gamanggut (Kor. 가망굿), jeseokgut (Kor. 제석굿), seonanggut (Kor. 서낭굿), daejabigut (Kor. 대잡이굿), keungut (Kor. 큰굿, comprising of sevent segments: songut 손굿, sonnim puri 손님풀이, gogeum yeokdae 고금역대, hwangcheon mundap 황천문답, yeoltu chungmun 열두축문, hwansaeng tanil 환생탄일 and siwang tanil 시왕탄일), daesin puri (Kor. 대신풀이), gununggut (Kor. 군웅굿) and georigut (Kor. 거리굿, also known as siseokgut 시석굿). The venue for the moksindanggut segment is the mid-point between the village and the shoreline, known as moksindang (Kor. 목신당).

Namhaean Byeolsingut is famous for its rich musical component, said to have been its distinctive feature since early times. Musical instruments used in this type of ritual include the piri (Kor. 피리, small reed flute), jeotdae (Kor. 젓대, flute), haegeum (Kor. 해금, Chin. 奚琴, two stringed zither), hojeok (Kor. 호적, Chin. 胡笛, conical double-reed oboe), janggu (Kor. 장구, Chin. 杖鼓, hourglass drum), jing (Kor. 징, gongs), and buk (Kor. 북, drums). One important characteristic of Namhaean Byeolsingut is that it begins and ends with a flute solo performance of cheongsinak and songsinak (Kor. 송신악, Chin. 送神樂, lit. farewell music to the god). These tunes are intended to invoke and bid farewell to the village god. The costumes worn by officiants are also noteworthy. The shaman dons a jacket made by attaching multicolor sleeves to a long, antique-style military vest (referred to as a kwaeja (Kor. 쾌자) by the locals). This costume is similar in appearance to the clothes worn by shamans in the western coastal region during the rite known as Widowondanggut (Kor. 위도원당굿). The ornate head dress in Namhaean Byeolsingut, however, is reminiscent of the head gear worn by shamans during the fishing rites in eastern coastal areas.