Performance of Five Players(駕山五廣大)

Performance of Five Players

Headword

가산오광대 ( 駕山五廣大 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs > January > 1st Lunarmonth > Seasonal Holidays

Writer ParkJintae(朴鎭泰)

Ogwangdae (Kor. 오광대, Chin. 五廣大, performance of five players) is a mask dance originating in the southeastern part of Korea, South Gyeongsang Province. It is still performed in some areas of the province such as Sacheon (Gasan-ri, Chukdong-myeon), Jinju, Masan (Jaseon-dong), and Tongyeong. The play was known under various names in the past including ogwangdae nori (Kor. 오광대놀이), ogwangdae noreum (Kor. 오광대놀음), ogwangdae tal noreum (Kor. 오광대탈놀음), and ogwangdae tal nori (Kor. 오광대탈놀이). However, it is currently referred to as ogwangdae.

Ogwangdae was probably first created in the village of Yukji-ri, Deokgok-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, under the name of Daegwangdaepae nori (Kor. 대광대패 놀이). From there the performance spread to other areas changing slightly as it was adapted by the local communities. Unlike the current ogwangdae, which is performed by professional entertainers, the original play was a communal activity in which all villagers participated.

There are several theories in regards to the etymology of the name ogwangdae, all of which connect to the five elements of fengshui. The original meaning of the performance by five players might best be interpreted as a “mask play with five elements.” In support of this theory, in the western part of South Gyeongsang Province (the areas west of the Nakdong River), the name was first used to designate five acts of a mask play and later came to define mask play as a whole. There is also an explanation that links the name of the play to obang sinjang (Kor. 오방신장, Chin. 五方神將, the guardian gods of five directions).

Ogwangdae usually starts around nine p.m. on the evening of the Great Full Moon Day (the fifteenth of the first lunar month) and lasts until midnight. When the masks are taken out of the chest before the beginning of the play, the actors, presided over by the one disguised as a nobleman, perform a ritual prayer (gosa, Kor. 고사, Chin. 告祀). Then the troupe tours the village while hoisting a flag. The procession is led by the character Malttugi (Kor. 말뚝이), followed by the Yangban character (Kor. 양반, Chin. 兩班, lit. nobleman), the Mudang character (Kor. 무당, Chin. 巫─, shaman), and the pungmulpae (Kor. 풍물패, Chin. 風物牌, lit. musical band). In the fishing villages of the Masan area, ogwangdae developed into a spring festival and takes place not on the fifteenth of the first lunar month, but on the last day of the third or early in the fourth lunar month.

Well-known regional variants of the ogwangdae plays include Gasan ogwangdae (Kor. 가산오광대, Chin. 駕山五廣大), Jinju ogwangdae (Kor. 진주오광대, Chin. 晋州五廣大), Masan ogwangdae (Kor. 마산오광대, Chin. 馬山五廣大), and Tongyeong ogwangdae (Kor. 통영오광대, Chin. 統營五廣大).

In Gasan ogwangdae (performed in the Gasan area), actors used to perform the play in the home village on the Great Full Moon Day and then tour the neighboring areas during the second lunar month. Currently the actors start by performing a dance known as deotboegichum (Kor. 덧뵈기춤) to the beat of a gong, accompanied by an hourglass drum and another drum called buk. The performance is also characterized by a lot of joking. It consists of six acts or madang (Kor. 마당): obang sinjang madang (Kor. 오방신장마당), yeongno madang (Kor. 영노마당), mundungi madang (Kor. 문둥이마당), yangban madang (Kor. 양반마당), jung madang (Kor. 중마당), and yeonggam halmi madang (Kor. 영감할미마당). At the end of the play the spectators join the actors in a finale dance.

In Jinju ogwangdae, the event originally started with the first sighting of the full moon between the ridges of Sujeongsan Mountain. At that precise moment the villagers set a stack of pine twigs on fire, called daljip (Kor. 달집, lit. moon house) and began to dance to the beats of big and small gongs. Once excitement filled the air and the mood was ripe, the masked actors would appear on the scene and begin their performance. Usually Jinju ogwangdae took place on the sandy bank of the Namgang River (Buungdeum) or the rice paddy fields of Bongok-dong (Tajak Madang Geori). This latter variant of ogwangdae is comprised of four acts (madang): obang sinjang madang, mundungi madang, yangban madang and jung yeonggam madang (Kor. 중·영감마당). In some cases the fourth segment was divided into two: jung madang and yeonggam halmi madang.

Another local variation, Masan ogwangdae, was performed on the last day of the third lunar month after the rite for the village tutelary deity, byeolsinje (Kor. 별신제, Chin. 別神祭). A small celebration of byeolsinje was held every three years, while every ten years it was commemorated on a larger scale. The ogwangdae troupe would start preparing for the show earlier in the year by raising money from the community in order to make the masks. The performance was usually hosted at an outdoor theater in Jasan-dong. The actors danced to the rhythm known as deotboegi (Kor. 덧뵈기) and often incorporated the tunes of popular folk songs such as Jung Taryeong (Kor. 중타령, Chin. -打令, lit. Monk’s Song), Yak Taryeong (Kor. 약타령, Chin. 藥打令, lit. Song of Medicine), Paldo Gangsan Yuramga (Kor. 팔도강산유람가, Chin. 八道江山遊覽歌, lit. Song of Journey around Korea), Jukjang Manghye (Kor. 죽장망혜, Chin. 竹杖芒鞋, lit. Bamboo Cane and Straw Shoes), Sinse Taryeong (Kor. 신세타령, Chin. 身世打令, lit. Song of a Hard-luck Story), Agi Eoreuneun Norae (Kor. 아기 어르는 노래, lit. Nursery Rhyme), Muga (Kor. 무가, Chin. 巫歌, lit. Shaman Song) and Sangyeo Norae (Kor. 상여노래, Chin. 喪輿-, lit. Song of Funeral Procession) into the performance.

Unlike the ogwangdae described above, Tongyeong ogwangdae was originally performed not by regular community members but by a professional ogwangdae troupe. Around 1895, the performance changed into one led by common villagers, and has continued as such until today. Currently, this mask play comprises dance performances, instrumental music, vocal performances, and theatrical dialogue. While the dancing and musical components of the mask play incorporate many elements of traditional dance and tunes from southeastern Korea, the satire directed at noblemen and the related dialogue are heavily influenced by sandae talnori and other folk drama/dance. This performance unfolds in five madang: mundungi madang, pungjatal madang (Kor. 풍자탈마당), yeongnotal madang (Kor. 영노탈마당), nongchangtal madang (Kor. 농창탈마당) and posutal madang (Kor. 포수탈마당).

Performance of Five Players

Performance of Five Players
Headword

가산오광대 ( 駕山五廣大 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Seasonal Customs > January > 1st Lunarmonth > Seasonal Holidays

Writer ParkJintae(朴鎭泰)

Ogwangdae (Kor. 오광대, Chin. 五廣大, performance of five players) is a mask dance originating in the southeastern part of Korea, South Gyeongsang Province. It is still performed in some areas of the province such as Sacheon (Gasan-ri, Chukdong-myeon), Jinju, Masan (Jaseon-dong), and Tongyeong. The play was known under various names in the past including ogwangdae nori (Kor. 오광대놀이), ogwangdae noreum (Kor. 오광대놀음), ogwangdae tal noreum (Kor. 오광대탈놀음), and ogwangdae tal nori (Kor. 오광대탈놀이). However, it is currently referred to as ogwangdae.

Ogwangdae was probably first created in the village of Yukji-ri, Deokgok-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, under the name of Daegwangdaepae nori (Kor. 대광대패 놀이). From there the performance spread to other areas changing slightly as it was adapted by the local communities. Unlike the current ogwangdae, which is performed by professional entertainers, the original play was a communal activity in which all villagers participated.

There are several theories in regards to the etymology of the name ogwangdae, all of which connect to the five elements of fengshui. The original meaning of the performance by five players might best be interpreted as a “mask play with five elements.” In support of this theory, in the western part of South Gyeongsang Province (the areas west of the Nakdong River), the name was first used to designate five acts of a mask play and later came to define mask play as a whole. There is also an explanation that links the name of the play to obang sinjang (Kor. 오방신장, Chin. 五方神將, the guardian gods of five directions).

Ogwangdae usually starts around nine p.m. on the evening of the Great Full Moon Day (the fifteenth of the first lunar month) and lasts until midnight. When the masks are taken out of the chest before the beginning of the play, the actors, presided over by the one disguised as a nobleman, perform a ritual prayer (gosa, Kor. 고사, Chin. 告祀). Then the troupe tours the village while hoisting a flag. The procession is led by the character Malttugi (Kor. 말뚝이), followed by the Yangban character (Kor. 양반, Chin. 兩班, lit. nobleman), the Mudang character (Kor. 무당, Chin. 巫─, shaman), and the pungmulpae (Kor. 풍물패, Chin. 風物牌, lit. musical band). In the fishing villages of the Masan area, ogwangdae developed into a spring festival and takes place not on the fifteenth of the first lunar month, but on the last day of the third or early in the fourth lunar month.

Well-known regional variants of the ogwangdae plays include Gasan ogwangdae (Kor. 가산오광대, Chin. 駕山五廣大), Jinju ogwangdae (Kor. 진주오광대, Chin. 晋州五廣大), Masan ogwangdae (Kor. 마산오광대, Chin. 馬山五廣大), and Tongyeong ogwangdae (Kor. 통영오광대, Chin. 統營五廣大).

In Gasan ogwangdae (performed in the Gasan area), actors used to perform the play in the home village on the Great Full Moon Day and then tour the neighboring areas during the second lunar month. Currently the actors start by performing a dance known as deotboegichum (Kor. 덧뵈기춤) to the beat of a gong, accompanied by an hourglass drum and another drum called buk. The performance is also characterized by a lot of joking. It consists of six acts or madang (Kor. 마당): obang sinjang madang (Kor. 오방신장마당), yeongno madang (Kor. 영노마당), mundungi madang (Kor. 문둥이마당), yangban madang (Kor. 양반마당), jung madang (Kor. 중마당), and yeonggam halmi madang (Kor. 영감할미마당). At the end of the play the spectators join the actors in a finale dance.

In Jinju ogwangdae, the event originally started with the first sighting of the full moon between the ridges of Sujeongsan Mountain. At that precise moment the villagers set a stack of pine twigs on fire, called daljip (Kor. 달집, lit. moon house) and began to dance to the beats of big and small gongs. Once excitement filled the air and the mood was ripe, the masked actors would appear on the scene and begin their performance. Usually Jinju ogwangdae took place on the sandy bank of the Namgang River (Buungdeum) or the rice paddy fields of Bongok-dong (Tajak Madang Geori). This latter variant of ogwangdae is comprised of four acts (madang): obang sinjang madang, mundungi madang, yangban madang and jung yeonggam madang (Kor. 중·영감마당). In some cases the fourth segment was divided into two: jung madang and yeonggam halmi madang.

Another local variation, Masan ogwangdae, was performed on the last day of the third lunar month after the rite for the village tutelary deity, byeolsinje (Kor. 별신제, Chin. 別神祭). A small celebration of byeolsinje was held every three years, while every ten years it was commemorated on a larger scale. The ogwangdae troupe would start preparing for the show earlier in the year by raising money from the community in order to make the masks. The performance was usually hosted at an outdoor theater in Jasan-dong. The actors danced to the rhythm known as deotboegi (Kor. 덧뵈기) and often incorporated the tunes of popular folk songs such as Jung Taryeong (Kor. 중타령, Chin. -打令, lit. Monk’s Song), Yak Taryeong (Kor. 약타령, Chin. 藥打令, lit. Song of Medicine), Paldo Gangsan Yuramga (Kor. 팔도강산유람가, Chin. 八道江山遊覽歌, lit. Song of Journey around Korea), Jukjang Manghye (Kor. 죽장망혜, Chin. 竹杖芒鞋, lit. Bamboo Cane and Straw Shoes), Sinse Taryeong (Kor. 신세타령, Chin. 身世打令, lit. Song of a Hard-luck Story), Agi Eoreuneun Norae (Kor. 아기 어르는 노래, lit. Nursery Rhyme), Muga (Kor. 무가, Chin. 巫歌, lit. Shaman Song) and Sangyeo Norae (Kor. 상여노래, Chin. 喪輿-, lit. Song of Funeral Procession) into the performance.

Unlike the ogwangdae described above, Tongyeong ogwangdae was originally performed not by regular community members but by a professional ogwangdae troupe. Around 1895, the performance changed into one led by common villagers, and has continued as such until today. Currently, this mask play comprises dance performances, instrumental music, vocal performances, and theatrical dialogue. While the dancing and musical components of the mask play incorporate many elements of traditional dance and tunes from southeastern Korea, the satire directed at noblemen and the related dialogue are heavily influenced by sandae talnori and other folk drama/dance. This performance unfolds in five madang: mundungi madang, pungjatal madang (Kor. 풍자탈마당), yeongnotal madang (Kor. 영노탈마당), nongchangtal madang (Kor. 농창탈마당) and posutal madang (Kor. 포수탈마당).

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