Lit. funeral rites(喪禮)

Lit. funeral rites

Headword

상례 ( 喪禮 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Rites of Passage > Korean Rites of Passage > Sangnye|Jangnye

Writer KimSiduk(金時德)

Rites that deal with death, the last stage of human life, and normalize succession of the family lineage.

The last process humans go through is death, and rites that deal with death are called sangnye (Kor. 상례, Chin. 喪禮, lit. funeral rites). There are two main religious perspectives on death. One considers death as something fearful. In this case, the focus is on treating the dead body as quickly as possible and separating the deceased from this life. The other considers death as part of the process of ancestral worship, so the bereaved observe a long ritual period in which the deceased becomes an ancestor. A case in point is the Confucian three-year mourning period (samnyeonsang). Traditionally, the Confucian funeral is focused on enshrining the spirit table of the deceased and conists of 19 major processes, which includes other small processes. The 19 major processes are as the follows:

① Chojongeui (初終儀): Confirmation of death and preparation for the funeral ceremony.
② Seup (襲): Bathing the body of the deceased and dressing it in su-ui, or the shroud, on the first day after death.
③ Soryeom (小殮): Wrapping and tying the body with hemp cloth on the second day after death.
④ Daeryeom (大殮): Laying the body in the coffin on the third day after death.
⑤ Seongbok (成服): Chief mourner dressing in funeral clothes and officially becoming the chief mourner on the fourth day after death.
⑥ Jo (弔): Receiving condolences from others, which is possible only after seongbok.
⑦ Munsang (聞喪): Offering condolences to the chief mourner upon receiving notice of the death.
⑧ Chijang (治葬): Preparation for the funeral including selection of a burial site and time.
⑨ Cheongu (遷柩): The day before barin, it is announced that the coffin is to be moved and ancestral memorial rite to eternally send off the deceased is conducted.
⑩ Barin (發靷): Funeral procession carrying the deceased from his or her home to the burial site, during which noje, a roadside memorial rite, is held.
⑪ Geummyo (及墓): Arrival of the bier at the burial site. The coffin is lowered into the grave, letters are written on the mortuary tablet, and an ancestral memorial rite is conducted.
⑫ Bangok (反哭): A newly made mortuary tablet and honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet) are carried home.
⑬ Uje (虞祭): This refers to three ceremonies: chouje (Kor. 초우제, Chin. 初虞祭, the first ancestral memorial rite after burial), jae-uje (Kor. 재우제, Chin. 再虞祭, the second ancestral memorial rite after burial), and samuje (Kor. 삼우제, Chin. 三虞祭, the third ancestral memorial rite after burial).
⑭ Jolgok (卒哭): The cessation of formal lamentation by the bereaved, and mitigating the sense of grief.
⑮ Buje (祔祭): Announcing enshrinement of the spirit tablet.
⑯ Sosang (小祥): Ancestral memorial rite marking the first anniversary of a family member’s death and mitigating the sense of grief of the chief mourner.
⑰ Daesang (大祥): Memorial rite held on the second anniversary of a family member’s death, after which the mortuary is removed.
⑱ Damje (禫祭): The last of all the memorial rites, held in the twenty seventh month after death, meaning that the bereaved must wait another season to return to daily life since they cannot do so right after mourning.
⑲ Gilje (吉祭): Memorial rite held to change the name of the deceased name on the spirit tablet, and burial of the spirit table of the third great grandfather, which is taken out of the family shrine.

Sangnye are not only the rites to treat the body of the deceased, but a ritual device to normalize succession of the family lineage by overcoming a crisis situation. In other words, sangnye are rites to deal with death, to send off the deceased to become an ancestral spirit, and to succeed the family lineage as the chief mourner returns to daily life. Three years is the period required to minimize the impact during the processes. For the three-year mourning, the grief of the chief mourner gradually decreases and he prepares to return to ordinary life. As he completes his role as a chief mourner and returns as head of the family, the three-year mourning period comes to an end.

Lit. funeral rites

Lit. funeral rites
Headword

상례 ( 喪禮 )

Location of the encyclopedia

Korean Rites of Passage > Korean Rites of Passage > Sangnye|Jangnye

Writer KimSiduk(金時德)

Rites that deal with death, the last stage of human life, and normalize succession of the family lineage.

The last process humans go through is death, and rites that deal with death are called sangnye (Kor. 상례, Chin. 喪禮, lit. funeral rites). There are two main religious perspectives on death. One considers death as something fearful. In this case, the focus is on treating the dead body as quickly as possible and separating the deceased from this life. The other considers death as part of the process of ancestral worship, so the bereaved observe a long ritual period in which the deceased becomes an ancestor. A case in point is the Confucian three-year mourning period (samnyeonsang). Traditionally, the Confucian funeral is focused on enshrining the spirit table of the deceased and conists of 19 major processes, which includes other small processes. The 19 major processes are as the follows:

① Chojongeui (初終儀): Confirmation of death and preparation for the funeral ceremony.
② Seup (襲): Bathing the body of the deceased and dressing it in su-ui, or the shroud, on the first day after death.
③ Soryeom (小殮): Wrapping and tying the body with hemp cloth on the second day after death.
④ Daeryeom (大殮): Laying the body in the coffin on the third day after death.
⑤ Seongbok (成服): Chief mourner dressing in funeral clothes and officially becoming the chief mourner on the fourth day after death.
⑥ Jo (弔): Receiving condolences from others, which is possible only after seongbok.
⑦ Munsang (聞喪): Offering condolences to the chief mourner upon receiving notice of the death.
⑧ Chijang (治葬): Preparation for the funeral including selection of a burial site and time.
⑨ Cheongu (遷柩): The day before barin, it is announced that the coffin is to be moved and ancestral memorial rite to eternally send off the deceased is conducted.
⑩ Barin (發靷): Funeral procession carrying the deceased from his or her home to the burial site, during which noje, a roadside memorial rite, is held.
⑪ Geummyo (及墓): Arrival of the bier at the burial site. The coffin is lowered into the grave, letters are written on the mortuary tablet, and an ancestral memorial rite is conducted.
⑫ Bangok (反哭): A newly made mortuary tablet and honbaek (Kor. 혼백, Chin. 魂帛, temporary spirit tablet) are carried home.
⑬ Uje (虞祭): This refers to three ceremonies: chouje (Kor. 초우제, Chin. 初虞祭, the first ancestral memorial rite after burial), jae-uje (Kor. 재우제, Chin. 再虞祭, the second ancestral memorial rite after burial), and samuje (Kor. 삼우제, Chin. 三虞祭, the third ancestral memorial rite after burial).
⑭ Jolgok (卒哭): The cessation of formal lamentation by the bereaved, and mitigating the sense of grief.
⑮ Buje (祔祭): Announcing enshrinement of the spirit tablet.
⑯ Sosang (小祥): Ancestral memorial rite marking the first anniversary of a family member’s death and mitigating the sense of grief of the chief mourner.
⑰ Daesang (大祥): Memorial rite held on the second anniversary of a family member’s death, after which the mortuary is removed.
⑱ Damje (禫祭): The last of all the memorial rites, held in the twenty seventh month after death, meaning that the bereaved must wait another season to return to daily life since they cannot do so right after mourning.
⑲ Gilje (吉祭): Memorial rite held to change the name of the deceased name on the spirit tablet, and burial of the spirit table of the third great grandfather, which is taken out of the family shrine.

Sangnye are not only the rites to treat the body of the deceased, but a ritual device to normalize succession of the family lineage by overcoming a crisis situation. In other words, sangnye are rites to deal with death, to send off the deceased to become an ancestral spirit, and to succeed the family lineage as the chief mourner returns to daily life. Three years is the period required to minimize the impact during the processes. For the three-year mourning, the grief of the chief mourner gradually decreases and he prepares to return to ordinary life. As he completes his role as a chief mourner and returns as head of the family, the three-year mourning period comes to an end.