Authors

all : 1

KimHeonsun

34 count

KimHeonsun

34

Jukbangulnori

Juggling a diabolo, a yo-yo like object in the shape of the janggu (hourglass-shaped drum), by spinning it up and down a string tied at either end of two sticks. Jukbangulnori (diabolo juggling) is performed by holding in both hands the two sticks connected with a string and to tossing the bamboo diabolo up in the air using the tension in the string and catching it again and making it spin up and down the string by winding and unwinding it. This game is also known as jukbangulbatgi (lit. receivi

Korean Folk Arts

Cleansing

Jeonghwa refers to all activity carried out to cleanse impurities from a place or a living being. Water, fire, soil and blood are the most basic means of carrying out the process of purification in a sacred venue. Offering a bowl of clear water fetched at dawn is one of the most basic forms of worship in Korean folk religion, an example that demonstrates the fundamental concept of jeonghwa. The concept of ssitgim in shamanism, also meaning, “cleansing, ” reflects the purification effects of wate

Korean Folk Beliefs

Song of Groom Dorang and Bride Cheongjeong

The shamanic myth“ Dorangseonbicheongjeonggaksinorae” tells the story of Cheongjeonggaksi (Bride Cheongjeong) and the sacrifice she makes in order to reunite with her groom, who died on the night of their wedding. The myth is recited during mangmukgut, a ritual for appeasing the dead observed in Hamgyeong Province, where Groom Dorang and Bride Cheongjeong are worshipped as deities that oversee the human soul. Bride Cheongjeong’s father was Hwadeokjunggunhwangcheolsa and her mother Lady Guto. It

Korean Folk Literature

Ritual for Provincial Deity

Dodanggut is the term for the village rituals of Gyeonggi Province, held regularly in the beginning of the first lunar month or in spring or fall, aimed at bringing peace and good harvest to the community. Dodanggut is organized by the villagers, with a head host official, called hwaju or dangju, in charge of overseeing the preparations, and dodanggut is officiated by a shaman from outside the community. The purpose of this village ritual is to pray to Dodangsin (Provincial Deity), the village g

Korean Folk Beliefs

Gods of Death by Smallpox

Hogubyeolseong is the combined name of two deities, used to refer to two separate gods or one, which originated from those who have died from smallpox or other diseases. The deity is sometimes referred to as sonnim (guest) or manura (wife). Hogu, as seen in its variation Hoguaegissi (Hogu Maiden), is associated with the female gender, while Byeolseong or Byeolsang is generally a male god, in most cases spirits of men who bear the grievance of getting caught in the turmoil of history and failing

Korean Folk Beliefs

Wedding Ritual for the Deceased

Mang jahonsagut is a ritual to bring together in matrimony the souls of youth who died untimely deaths prior to marriage. In Korean folk religion, those who die unwed are not considered full adults and cannot be worshipped through ancestral memorial service, hence weddings are arranged for the deceased in order to elevate their status to that of a proper ancestor. This practice, which is observed around the country, is arranged by the families of a deceased bachelor and a deceased maiden, the ri

Korean Folk Beliefs

Earthenware Steamer Narrative

The shamanic myth“ Sirumal (Earthenware Steamer Narrative), ”belonging to the category of universe creation myths, is performed as part of the second segment in the Twelve-Segment Ritual (Yeoldugeorigut), transmitted in the Busan-dong neighborhood of Osan, Gyeonggi Province. The following is a summary of a version of this myth recorded during the Japanese colonial period: Dangchilseong, of Cheonhagung (Palace Under Heaven), descends to Jihagung (Palace Underground) chasing after fugitives on the

Korean Folk Literature

Origin of Seven Stars

“Chilseongbonpuri”is a shamanic myth that narrates the birth and the deification of Chilseongsin (Seven Stars), a snake god that oversees the fortunes of a family. It is recited as part of household ritual to pray for success in business, or rituals held to chase away trouble related to snakes. The plot can be summarized as follows: State Official Jang Seol-ryong and his wife Song Seol-ryong are unable to conceive into their later years and by praying to Buddha at a temple, they give birth to a

Korean Folk Literature

Utdari Nongak

Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down in Daejeon, Chungcheongnamdo Province. Utdari Nongak was designated as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Daejeon No. 1 in 1989. It had been originally designated Local Intangible Cultural Heritage of Chungcheongnam-do Province in December 1984 under the name Chungcheong Utdari Nongak, but when Daedeok-gun, Chungcheongnam-do Province was incorporated into Daejeon City under the name Daedeok-gu in 1989, it was re-designated and is handed down today as Utdari No

Korean Folk Arts

Yangju Nongak

Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down in Yangju, Gyeonggi-do Province based on several different types of nongak. As nongak handed down in the Yangju region, it was designated as Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 46 of Gyeonggi-do Province on March 20, 2006. About 100 years ago in Gwangjeok-myeon, Hoechon-dong in Yangju (present-day Yangju, Gwangjeok-myeon, Hyochon-dong) when transplanting rice or weeding, people used to perform nongsapuri (mimicking farming work) led by durepae (farm labor collect

Korean Folk Arts

Samulnori

A form of nongak (farmers’ music) featuring four musicians, each playing one percussion instrument-kkwaenggwari (small gong), janggu (hourglass-shaped drum), buk (barrel drum), and jing (large gong)-in seated position, performing minutely rearranged nongak rhythms that maximize artistic ecstasy and exhilaration. There are various theories about the origin and development of samulnori. The term samul refers to the four basic musical instruments used in Buddhist services: a fish-shaped percussion

Korean Folk Arts

Uncleanness

Bujeong, literally meaning “uncleanness, ” is a term that refers to all forms of impurities that can damage the sanctity of a ritual throughout its process. Bujeongtada, meaning, “to be affected by uncleanness, ” is an expression used to refer to the impact of impure elements. In order to prevent the effects of uncleanness, many taboos (geumgi) are observed, and thus in Korean folk religion impurities and taboos are closely related. Uncleanness is caused by factors related to birth, women, death

Korean Folk Beliefs

Song of Origin

Bonpuri refers to epic poems that narrate the origin of a shamanic god, or to the segment in a shamanic ritual that features a recitation of the epic about the origins of the deity worshipped in the ritual. A shamanic ritual (gut) is a multi-dimensional performance that involves a variety of elements including epic recitation, greeting of the gods, and dramatic play to entertain the gods, each closely related to the shamanic gods worshipped in the ritual. Among the various elements, bonpuri, or

Korean Folk Literature

Ritual for Provincial Deity

Dodanggut is the term for the village rituals of Gyeonggi Province, held regularly in the beginning of the first lunar month or in spring or fall, aimed at bringing peace and good harvest to the community. Dodanggut is organized by the villagers, with a head host official, called hwaju or dangju, in charge of overseeing the preparations, and dodanggut is officiated by a shaman from outside the community. The purpose of this village ritual is to pray to Dodangsin (Provincial Deity), the village g

Korean Folk Beliefs

Imsil Pilbong Nongak

Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down in Pilbong-ri, Gangjin-myeon, Imsil in Jeollabuk-do Province. Imsil Pilbong Nongak falls under the geographic category of Honam Jwado Nongak, that is, nongak from the eastern part of the Honam region (jwado, or the left side from the perspective of Seoul). While nongak originating from the same region tends to change over time and place, Imsil Pilbong Nongak carries on the traditions of the main framework of Honam Jwado Nongak. Though based on the regional and

Korean Folk Arts

Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori

Pungmulnori (folk music and dance), or nongak (farmers’ music), performed by troupes of male itinerant entertainers (namsadangpae) passed down in Anseong, Gyeonggi-do Province. Anseong Namsadang Pungmulnori, designated as Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 21 of Gyeonggi-do Province on September 30, 1997, has its roots in the Korean rural institutions called dure, which are communal farm labor groups, and nanjang, an open market performance, and is based on the forms of dure and nanjang handed dow

Korean Folk Arts

Gwangmyeong Nongak

Nongak (farmers’ music) that has been handed down in Gwangmyeong, Gyeonggi-do Province. The city of Gwangmyeong was formerly under the jurisdiction of Siheung county in Gyeonggi-do Province. Back then, the Gwangmyeong region was covered with wide-open fields and rice paddies that were characterized by clayey and muddy soil. In the rainy season, the area sometimes got flooded and turned the fields and rice paddies into bogs, having a negative impact on farming in the region. Gwangmyeong Nongak is

Korean Folk Arts

Burning of Sacred Text

Soji is the burning of a sacred text, written on mulberry paper and torn into a designated size, a religious act performed to purify a secular venue into a sacred one (jeonghwa) or to make a wish. Soji is categorized into dongminsoji, which involves a villager; daedongsoji, held for the entire village; umasoji, carried out for the proliferation of cattle and horses; and gakseongbajisoji, which involves individuals of different family names. In a Confucian rite, the sheet containing the prayer te

Korean Folk Beliefs

Shamanic Instruments

Muakgi is a term that refers to the wide range of musical instruments used in a shamanic ritual. Music accompanies almost all shamanic rituals, performed on janggu (hourglass drum), bara (small cymbals), piri (reed flute), daegeum (large bamboo flute, also called jeotdae), haegeum (two-stringed zither), kkwaenggwari (small gong), buk (small drum), seolsoe (bowl-shaped gong) and other instruments. In the northern parts of Gyeonggi Province, janggu, jing (gong), bara, piri, haegeum and daegeum are

Korean Folk Beliefs

Flood Prevention Deity

Sugumaegi, literally meaning, “waterway blocker, ” is a term that refers to the deity that provides protection as required by geomancy by blocking the waterway at the village entrance. The term can refer to a street god that protects the village entrance, or to a deity that keeps forceful water energy under control or supplements energy that is lacking. Rituals related with this deity include those performed by farmers’ music troupes, with songs that contain prayers for blocking the waterway and

Korean Folk Beliefs

Pyeongchang Dunjeonpyeong Nongak

Nongak based on the mimicking of farming procedures (nongsapuri) handed down in Yongpyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang in Gangwon-do Province. Pyeongchang Dunjeonpyeong Nongak was designated Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 15 of Gangwon-do Province on April 25, 2003. It is based on the nongak performed in Dunjeon-dong, Yongpyeongmyeon in Pyeongchang, and one of the forms of nongak of the Yeongdong region. In the past it was widely known as Yongpyeong Nongak. Dunjeonpyeong is the name given to the vast f

Korean Folk Arts

Beona

Spinning of a saucer-shaped object such as a sieve frame, wash basin, or bowl, on a stick using a special device or by hand to the accompaniment of nongak (farmers’ music) rhythms. The origins of beonanori (saucer spinning) can be traced back to the performances of itinerant entertainers such as the namsadangpae of the 20th century. One member of such a troupe testifies that saucer spinning was not part of the original namsadang repertoire. As such, it is presumed that saucer spinning might have

Korean Folk Arts

Smallpox Prevention Ritual

Sonnimgut, literally meaning, “guest ritual, ” is a shamanic ritual segment for worshipping the god responsible for smallpox and measles. The ritual is also called songut and is practiced around the country in various formats. Sonnimgut is a prevention ritual closely related to the smallpox send-off ritual mamabaesonggut, the two procedures distinguished by function. This send-off ritual focuses on appeasing the smallpox deity Mama so that it will go away. It is believed that a generous amount o

Korean Folk Beliefs

Origin of Gwenwegit Shrine

The shamanic myth“ Gwenewgitdangbonpuri” narrates the origins of a village god on Jeju Island, a genre categorized as dangsinbonpuri. The narrative revolves around Socheonguk, a man of immense appetite who could swallow whole cows and pigs; his wife Baekjutto; and their sixth son Gwenwegitto. Alternate titles include Halloyeongsan Gwenwegitdangbonpuri (Song of the Origin of Gwenwegit Shrine on Mt.Halloyeong); and Songdangbonpuri (Song of the Origin of Songdang, Progenitor of Jeju Village Gods) S

Korean Folk Literature

Abandoned Princess Bari

The shamanic myth“ Barigongju” narrates the origins of an underworld deity and is recited as part of deathappeasing shamanic rites including the underworld entry rituals jinogigut, ogugut, mangmugigut and the grievance cleansing ritual ssitgimgut. The following version of“ Barigongju” is considered one of the most complete: Jusanggeummama (His Majesty the King) and Jungjeonbuin (Lady Queen) are to be wed, but when they seek the advice of Dajibaksa of Cheonhagung (Palace Under Heaven), he imposes

Korean Folk Literature

Origin of Martial Hero Deity

The shamanic myth“Gunungbonpuri”narrates the origins of the shamanic god Gunung (Martial Hero Deity). In this narrative, Grandpa Gunnong is the Heavenly Emperor Jeseok and Granny Gunnong is the Earthly Empress Jeseok; Father Gunnong is Wang Daejo Wang Janggun (Great Royal Ancestor Martial King) and Mother Gunnong is Huiseogenang; their eldest son Wang Geun, second son Wang Bin and youngest son Wang Sarang. Father Gunnong Wang Janggun was a widower who made a living as a lumberjack. One day a you

Korean Folk Literature

Origin of Guardian Deity of Naju Grain Reserve

The shamanic myth “Najugiminchangbonpuri” narrates the origin of the ancestral deity of the An family of Seonheul Village in Jocheon, now part of Jeju City on Jeju Island. The myth has been passed down by many shamans of Jeju Island, but the following version by shaman An Sa-in is the most complete: Once upon a time, three brothers of the An family in Sunheung arrived on Jeju Island and each went to live in a different village. The youngest settled in Seonheul Village of Jocheon District, and ye

Korean Folk Literature

Animal Sacrifice

Huisaengjemul is the term for animal sacrifices offered to the gods in rituals. The origins of animal sacrifices in Korea date back far in history, with records of the practice in Buyeo (2nd century B.C.E.–494) of a ritual for the heavens held in times of war, which included the killing of a cow and making predictions about the outcome by reading its hoofs. The most primal form of sacrifice is known to be human sacrifice, which was replaced by animals over time, beginning with wild animals, whic

Korean Folk Beliefs

Ox Performance

Sonori (Kor. 소놀이, lit. ox dance) are a series of ox-related activities, which are performed on Chuseok (Kor. 추석, Chin. 秋夕, Harvest Festival, the fifteenth of the eighth lunar month). This custom, also known as someogi nori (Kor. 소먹이놀이), is meant to offer special entertainment to farm workers and their oxen in order to thank them for their hard work. Sonori is usually preceded by a musical performance by a farmers’ band. Once villagers are gathered around the farmers’ band and excitement is in th

Korean Seasonal Customs

Shamanic Follower

Dangol is a term that refers to a hereditary shaman, or to a follower who has established an exclusive relationship with a shaman. In Jeolla Province, a hereditary shaman is called dangolle or danggolle. In other regions, including the Seoul area, dangol, or danggul, refers to a follower who has established an exclusive relationship with a shaman, and in contemporary Korean lexicon, the term has come to mean “a regular client.” Dangol can also refer to the relationship between the shaman and the

Korean Folk Beliefs

Namsadang Folk Show of Anseong

Anseong Namsadang Pungmul Nori (Kor. 안성남사당풍물놀이, Chin. 安城男寺黨風物-, Namsadang Folk Show of Anseong) refers to a tradition of folk music and dance performances preserved in the Anseong area of Gyeonggi Province. Pungmul nori (Kor. 풍물놀이, Chin. 風物-, folk music and dance performance) in traditional rural communities were usually performed by amateur bands of farmers. Anseong Namsadang Pungmul Nori is an exception as it was performed by the professional troupes of traveling entertainers who were based in

Korean Seasonal Customs

Ox Exorcism-Drama of Yangju

Yangju Sonorigut (Kor. 양주소놀이굿, Chin. 楊州-) is a ritual performed during the eighth or ninth lunar month in the Yangju area of Gyeonggi Province. The ritual features an ox, an important source of labor in traditional farming communities, and is designed as a form of prayer and thanksgiving for an abundant harvest. Yangju Sonorigut was designated as Important Intangible Cultural Treasure No. 70 in 1980. Sonorigut is a ritualized form of the folk performance known as sonori (Kor. 소놀이) featuring a co

Korean Seasonal Customs

Thanksgiving Ritual

Jinjeokgut is a ritual of offering thanks by shamans to their possessing deities and other shamanic gods. The term jinjeokgut, once referred to as jinjeok, came from the word for libation, “jinjak, ” a formal term found in Uigwe (Royal Protocols) of the Joseon dynasty. This thanksgiving ritual is held during the spring blooming season and after the fall harvest. Spring rituals held in the Seoul area and Hwanghae Province are called kkotmajigut (flower greeting ritual) and fall rituals are called

Korean Folk Beliefs

Nongak

Percussion music and performance by farmers, who are divided into musicians (chibae) and actors (japsaek) who play various roles according to the music. First it is necessary to explain the nature and history of the term nongak. Traditionally, records have mentioned the word nongak (Kor. 농악, Chin.農樂, lit. farming/farmers’ music), but the comprehensive meaning of the Chinese-character word and the records themselves are the product of the upper classes and have for this reason have been rejected

Korean Folk Arts
<< 이전 1

1/1

>>