이리농악 ( 里里农乐 )
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Korean Folk Arts
Nongak (farmers’ music) handed down mostly in Iksan, Jeollabuk-do Province.
Iri Nongak largely has two lineages: one is the lineage of the Iri Nongak that has designated National Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 11-3, and the other is the native nongak passed down in the Iksan area. Iksan is geographically located in the middle of the Honam Udo Nongak and Honam Jwado Nongak regions, while having mutual influence with Chungcheong Nongak via the Geumgang River. For this reason, Iksan Nongak has a regional streak that reveals characteristics of both udo and jwado nongak. In particular, Iksan Seongdangpo Nongak strongly reveals the characteristics of Honam Jwado Nongak. Iri Nongak won the grand prize at the first National Nongak Competition in 1983 and the presidential award at the 26th National Folk Arts Competition in 1985. It was then designated as National Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 11-3 on December 1 the same year.
The costume and formation of chibae (musicians) have changed over time. The oldest record of these points is found in “Honam Nongak” (1967), according to which the current attire and formation of Iri Nongak can be summed up as follows: the percussionists wear red jeogori (traditional upper garment), trousers, ganbal (foot wrappers), straw shoes, tedaenim (ankle bands), head towel, blue cotton cloth, overgarment with a tri-colored sash, jacket with sleeves of multicolored stripes, a round mirror-shaped metal plate called ilgwang (“sunlight”) or wolgwang (“moonlight”), and a colored cloth attached to the back of the costume.
Later, this attire changed so that colored bands were worn across the front of the costume in an X shape, not on the back, and the sleeves of multicolored stripes and mirror-shaped plate disappeared.
The yongdanggi (dragon flag) has a flagpole with pheasant feathers at the top, a dragon painted on the flag, and a fringe of triangles (jinebal) attached on the edges. The yongdanggi bearer wears the basic costume with a peaked hat on or a white towel wrapped around his head. The yeonggi (command flag) bearer wears a black short-sleeved jacket called deogeure and paerangi (rough hat of bamboo cord) on the head. The flagpole has a trident on top, the character 令 (yeong, Kor. 영) meaning “command, ” is written on the flag, and a fringe is attached to the edges.
The formation of apchibae (musicians) includes a nabal (long-straight trumpet) player, saenapsu (double-reed oboe player), sangsoe (lead small gong player), second small gong player, third small gong player, jing (large gong) player, lead janggu (hourglass-shaped drum) player, second janggu player, buk (barrel drum) player, sogo player wearing a peaked hat (gokkalsogo), and sogo player wearing a long spinning streamer hat (chaesangsogo). The formation of dwitchibae (actors) includes daeposu (lead actor playing the role of general/hunter), monk (jorijung), male clown or shaman’s husband (changbu), nobleman (yangban), new bride (gaksi), and child performers (mudong). Iri Nongak has three types of dances, including those of the kkwaenggwari (small gong) players, janggu players and sogo players. In detail, the kkwaenggwari players’ dance of Iri Nongak features ppeotsangmochum, a dance wearing a hat with paper or feather tuft attached. The buponoreum (solo gong performance) of the ppeotsangmochum, which constitutes the main part of Honam Udo Nongak, demonstrates diverse skills and harmony in dots and lines. Its representative dance moves include oesa/oesangmo (spinning the streamer on the hat in one direction only), yangsa/yangsangmo (spinning the streamer on the hat in two directions), sanchigi (raising the streamer on the hat), baemireogi (raising the streamer on the hat, then folding it in half), dotdaechigi (raising the feathered hat straight up or spinning the streamer hat on the same spot like a mast), and jwauchigi (moving in a circle, pausing for a while, moving three steps to the left and then to the right, forward and backward).
The janggu player’s dance is well developed in Honam Udo Nongak as it was originally derived from seoljanggonori (lead janggu player’s performance), by separating the performance into an independent “solo performance” named janggochum. Janggochum has relatively many foot movements along with hand movements. The most developed form of janggochum is the solo janggu performance in nongak, and its major dance moves include mijigi (moving back and forth in two rows), jejaridduigi (jumping on the spot), baggeumjil (changing places), samjinsamtoi (moving forward and backward three times each), yeopgeoreumchigi (walking sideways), and jejarihoejeon (turning on the spot). The sogo player’s dance of Iri Nongak largely consists of gokkalsogochum, in which the sogo player dances wearing a conical hat.
Iri Nongak also features theatrical entertainment called ilgwangnori. In ilgwangnori, the sangsoe (lead small gong player) gathers the other small gong players together for a drink before starting a performance, when the daeposu (lead actor in the role of hunter/general) sneaks in the performance arena and steals a gong, hiding it underneath his clothes. Subsequently, the sangsoe and daeposu exchange jokes, then the sangsoe finds the gong stolen by the daeposu.
The present pangut (entertainment-based performance combining music, dance, and acrobatics) of Iri Nongak is performed in the following order:
This act is carried out in the order of naedeurim, cheongnyeong, ilchae (one-strike) rhythm, ichae (two-strike) rhythm, jungan maedoji (ending rhythm for intermission), ichae, and insagut (greeting gut).
1) Naedeurim: The musicians (chibae) stand arranged by instrument at the entrance to the performance arena and play their instruments to the ilchae rhythm.
2) Cheongnyeonggut: The following dialogue is exchanged between performers: The sangsoe calls out, “Sunryeongsu [guard and flag bearer]!” The chibae answer, “Yes, Sir!” The sangsoe says, “If all chibae are gathered together, stand still one second, two seconds, then march after three seconds.” The chibae answer, “Yes, Sir!”
Ipjang-Insagut (entry and greeting gut)
1) Ipjanggut/ meongseongmarigut (entry/snail-shaped formation): The musicians enter in a row while playing their instruments to the ipjanggut, and centering on the flag bearer, make a rolled-up-straw-mat formation or a snail-shaped formation moving counterclockwise.
2) Meongseokpulgi: Leaving the flag bearers in their places, the lead sogo player and other musicians dissolve the snail-shaped formation and turn in a circle moving counterclockwise.
3) Insagut: The musicians stand still in a circle facing inside, then turn around to bow and greet the audience.
First madang (act or movement): Ochaejilgut
1) Ochaejilgut: While the musicians (chibae) turn in a circle moving counterclockwise, the sangsoe (lead small gong player) alone enters the circular formation. The sangsoe strikes the gong in the rhythms of ochaejilgut and jojilgut, then the musicians turn in a circle moving counterclockwise. The sangsoe strikes the gong again to the ujilgut rhythm, then the musicians turn in a circle moving clockwise. When sangsoe plays the jilgut rhythm, the musicians turn in a circle moving counterclockwise.
2) Yangsandogut: This begins with the signal of the sangsoe striking the gong in rhythmic variations. The musicians stand on the spot and make a 360 degree turn, then turn in a circle moving counterclockwise. Again, as the sangsoe makes the signal by playing rhythmic variations, yangsandogut gives way to ieumgut.
3) Ieumgut (connecting performance): In the first two nodes of ieumgut, the musicians stand and jump on the spot, walk sideways into circular formation, then turn in a circle moving counterclockwise, preparing to perform samchaegut.
4) Samchaegut: While the sangsoe strikes the gong in a long samchae rhythm, the musicians turn in a circle moving counterclockwise. The sangsoe plays rhythmic variations and short samchae rhythms in a row. Then, while the sangsoe plays varied samchae rhythms, only the small gong players led by the sangsoe enter the circle, make a smaller circle inside and perform buponoreum (solo gong performance). The row of small gong players turn in a circle moving clockwise inside the bigger circle made by the other percussionists who move counterclockwise. Then the sangsoe leads small gong players into the bigger circle while playing a long samchae rhythm.
5) Mijigi: When the sangsoe sends a signal to the lead janggu player, the drummer strikes the drum rapidly in the deong-deo-gung-i pattern, then the row of janggu players and the row of small gong players enter the bigger circle, each making a single file to create two rows. Next, while the other percussionists turn in the bigger circle moving counterclockwise, the small gong players and janggu players move back and forth in two rows.
6) Long maedojigut: While playing the long maedoji (special rhythmic pattern used to end a rhythm pattern before going on to the next unit) the sangsoe ends the first madang.
Second madang: Obangjingut
1) Obangjingut: While the sangsoe strikes the gong in the obangjinut rhythm, the musicians turn in a circle moving counterclockwise.
2) Jinobangjingut: While playing the jinobangjingut (fast obangjin), the musicians make the obangjin formation (moving in five directions), when the chaesangsogo perform acrobatics at an opportune time.
3) Samchaegut: While dissolving the last snail-shaped formation of obangjin and turning in a circle moving counterclockwise, the musicians play the samchae rhythm. When the sangsoe tells the circle to stop turning all the musicians spin the streamers on their hat while playing the samchae rhythm. Next, while playing the same rhythmic pattern, the percussionists enter the circle sideways, then move out of the circle and stand still in a circle, then make a 360 degree turn on the spot. Again they play the samchae rhythm and turn in a circle moving counterclockwise. When the sangsoe plays the rhythmic variations, the small gong players enter the big circle and make a small circle, turning in the circle in the clockwise direction. When the sangsoe switches to varied samchae rhythms, the small gong players march in place.
4) Mijigigut: When the sangsoe leads small gong players in a row and enters the big circle, the lead janggu player also leads the other janggu players in a row and enters the big circle. Each group of musicians than stands in a row and the two rows move back and forth as if pushing each other.
5) Maedojigut: The sangsoe plays a muted samchae rhythm then the maedojigut to end the madang.
Third madang: Hohogut
1) Eoreumgut/ilchaegut: Standing in a circle, the musicians play the ilchae rhythm/eoreumgut rhythm.
2) Hohogut naendeuaraemi: While playing the hohogut naendeuaraemi rhythm, the sangsoe turns in a circle moving counterclockwise.
3) Hohogut: While playing the hohogut rhythm, the sangsoe shouts “ho ho” and the musicians do the same as they turn in a circle moving counterclockwise. Then, they jump sideways counterclockwise, and stand up and down on the same spot. Next, they go on to play the darachi (moving backward) rhythm.
4) Darachigi (moving backward): While playing the small gong, the sangsoe turns the musicians around one by one and leads them out. (When the sangsoe moves backward in front of the musicians, they follow him while striking rhythmic patterns.)
5) Nanumjin (separating to the left and right): Next, the performers separate into a row of primary small gong players and a row of second small gong players to form two rows. Then, the first row makes a circle and turns in the counterclockwise direction, while the second row makes a circle and turns in the clockwise direction, making two concentric rotating circles. Then the two circles move out of formation and stand in two straight rows, facing each other.
6) Gasaechigi (moving in an X shape): While playing the darachigi rhythm, the musicians standing in two facing rows approach each other and pass through the other row to create an X shape.
7) Mijigi: Next, the performers stand in two rows and move back and forth as if pushing each other.
8) Maedojigut: With the musicians standing in place, the sangsoe plays the short maedoji rhythm to end the madang.
- Duitgut (wrap-up): Consists of ilgwangnori and gujeongnori
1) Ilgwangnori: While playing the long samchae (three-strike) rhythm and leading the small gong players, the sangsoe enters and shifts from the samchae rhythm to maedoji, then proposes drinking a bowl of rice wine. When the small gong players are gathered together and sit down to drink, the daeposu enters the arena, steals a small gong and hides it underneath his jacket. Realizing that the gong has vanished, the sangsoe exchanges jokes with the daeposu, then finds out that the small gong is hidden under his jacket. At this, the daeposu returns the gong to the sangsoe.
2) Gujeongnori: Musicians make an open square formation (ㄷ) and carry out a series of individual performances, which are collectively called gujeongnori.
① Gokkalsogonori (performance of sogo players wearing a peaked hat): First, the sogo players wearing a peaked hat enter the gutpan to the long samchae rhythm, then turn in a circle moving counterclockwise and end the gut garak. Next, they dance merrily to the gutgeori garak, then perform gokkalsogo dance moves to the three-strike rhythm, and finally make an exit.
② Chaesangsogonori (performance of sogo players wearing a long spinning streamer hat): Sogo players wearing a hat with a long spinning streamer attached enter while playing the ilchae (one-strike) rhythm, then perform ilsa (spinning the streamer in one direction only), yangsa (spinning the streamer in two directions), peoneomgigi (moving the streamer back and forth), anjeunsang (jumping lightly while playing the drum in seated position), and balchagi (kicking), and finally exiting.
③ Soenori (small gong performance): The sangsoe comes in the arena, performs buponori (solo gong performance) and ballim (body and hand gestures), including sanchigi, dotdaechigi, oesangmo, yangsangmo, and baemireogi, then bows and leaves.
④ Seoljanggonori (lead janggu player’s performance): The lead janggu player and second janggu player enter the arena and perform ichae, obangjin, gutgeori, samchae, and yeonpungdae rhythms then bow and leave.
⑤ Yeoldubalsangmonori: The sogo players wearing a hat with long 12-foot spinning streamer (yeoldubalsangmo) spin the streamer in one direction only and then in both directions alternately to the long samchae rhythm, then go onto dance moves, including jumping over, anjeunsang, and flipping backwards according to a rapid samchae rhythm.
⑥ Gitdaenori (flag performance): Carrying the dragon flag (yonggi), the dragon flag bearer enters, performs flag-bowing, flag-spinning, and “setting the flag upright on the palm, ” then makes an exit.
Insa-Toejanggut (greeting and exit)
1) Insagut: The musicians make a circle and turn moving counterclockwise, stand still facing the inside, then turn around to greet the audience while playing the insagut rhythm.
2) Toejanggut: Playing the long samchae rhythm, the performers make an exit, led by the flag bearer and lastly followed by the actors.
Iri Nongak has the following comparative characteristics: First, overall, the lineage and formats of Honam Udo Nongak form the mainstream of Iri Nongak. Second, Iri Nongak has the characteristics of the nongak of a region bordering on three areas, that is, Honam Udo Nongak (nongak style from the western part of Jeolla-do Province), Honam Jwado Nongak (nongak style from the eastern part of Jeolla-do Province), and Chungcheong-do Utdari Nongak (nongak style from central Chungcheong- do Province). Third, as such, Iri Nongak retains both the traditions of Honam Udo Nongak and of Honam Jwado Nongak. Fourth, Iri Nongak follows the format of Honam Udo Nongak. Fifth, the formats of Iri Nongak feature considerably weakened dwitgut/japsaeknoreum (second part of the performance featuring the actors) compared to apgut (first part performed by the musicians).
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Korean Folk Arts