Tuho (Kor. 투호, Chin. 投壺, lit. throwing into a vase) is a game in which players are divided into two teams and throw arrows into a vase placed at a certain distance. The vases into which the arrows are thrown vary both in size and shape. The size of the arrows also differs, and each player is given a set of twelve arrows. Points are earned depending on the proximitiy of the arrow to the center of the vase.
The game originated in China prior to the Han dynasty (BCE 206 - CE 220). It is mentioned in the “Chunqiuzuochuan” (Kor. 춘추좌전, Chin. 春秋左傳, Zuo’s Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, BCE 5th century), as having been played during a banquet between the lords of the Jin and Qi states. From the Three Kingdoms Period (?-668) to the late Joseon dynasty (1392-1910), tuho was not just a game, but also a way to learn Confucian etiquette and manners. Tuho was frequently promoted during lectures hosted at banquets as one of the arts and skills worth cultivating by Confucian gentlemen. Tuho, therefore, was practiced mostly in the royal household and among members of the ruling elite. King Seongjong (1457-1494) of Joseon, in the 10th year of his reign, issued tuhoui (Kor. 투호의, Chin. 投壺儀, lit. etiquette of tuho) and strongly encouraged the members of his court to practice tuho and to host tuho competitions. In subsequent years, on the third of the third lunar month and the ninth of the ninth lunar month, tuho competitions took place during court elders’ banquets including giroyeon (Kor. 기로연) and giyeonghoe (Kor. 기영회). The game also served as a pastime for the queen and other ruling-class women of Joseon.