Mangjong (Kor. 망종, Chin. 芒種, lit. bearded grain) is the ninth of the twenty-four solar terms. Occurring between Soman (Kor. 소만, Chin. 小滿, Beginning of Grain Ripening) and Haji (Kor. 하지, Chin. 夏至, Summer Solstice), Mangjong usually falls during the fifth month on the lunar calendar and happens around June sixth on the Gregorian calendar. The sun reaches the celestial longitude of 75 degrees on this day. As suggested by its name, Mangjong indicates the appropriate time to harvest the first crop and sow the second of bearded grains such as rice and barley.
In the traditional Korean agricultural calendar, barley had to be harvested before Mangjong; otherwise, the barley plants would be damaged by the wind and there would not be enough time to prepare for the rice transplantation. This belief is evident in the proverb, "Cut barley before Mangjong." The days around Mangjong were one of the busiest times of the year in farming communities, particularly in areas with extensive barley fields. A custom related to this solar term, referred to as Mangjong bogi (Kor. 망종보기, Chin. 芒種–, Mangjong divination), consisted of trying to predict the year’s barley harvest by the date on which Mangjong fell. If it occurred early (in the fourth lunar month), it was believed to be an indicator of an abundant harvest, but if Mangjong fell in the fifth lunar month, it signified a poor harvest.